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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; T. turgidum ; Aegilops squarrosa ; Cation uptake ; D genome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary K/Na ratios have been determined in the leaves of salt-treated plants of 14 disomic substitution lines in which each of the D-genome chromosomes replaces the homoeologous A- or B-genome chromosome in the tetraploid wheat variety Langdon (AABB genome). Aneuploid lines of hexaploid bread wheat (cv Chinese Spring) having a reduced or an enhanced complement of chromosome 4D have also been examined. These investigations show that the gene(s) determining K/Na ratios in the leaves of wheat plants grown in the presence of salt is located on the long arm of chromosome 4D.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum ; K/Na discrimination ; Salt tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A number of accessions of the three species of diploid wheat, Triticum boeoticum, T. monococcum, and T. urartu, were grown in 50 mol m-3 NaCl+2.5 mol m-3 CaCl2. Sodium accumulation in the leaves was low and potassium concentrations remained high. This was not the case in T. durum grown under the same conditions, and indicates the presence in diploid wheats of the enhanced K/Na discrimination character which has previously been found in Aegilops squarrosa and hexaploid wheat. None of the accessions of diploid wheat showed poor K/Na discrimination, which suggests that if the A genome of modern tetraploid wheats was derived from a diploid Triticum species, then the enhanced K/Na discrimination character became altered after the formation of the original allopolyploid. Another possibility is that a diploid wheat that did not have the enhanced K/Na discrimination character was involved in the hybridization event which produced tetraploid wheat, and that this diploid is now extinct or has not yet been discovered.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Seasonal simulations of the Indian summer monsoon using a 50-km regional climate model (RCM) are described. Results from three versions of the RCM distinguished by different domain sizes are compared against those of the driving global general circulation model (AGCM). Precipitation over land is 20% larger in the RCMs due to stronger vertical motions arising from finer horizontal resolution. The resulting increase in condensational heating helps to intensify the monsoon trough relative to the AGCM. The RCM precipitation distributions show a strong orographically forced mesoscale component (similar in each version). This component is not present in the AGCM. The RCMs produce two qualitatively realistic intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) associated respectively with monsoon depressions which propagate northwestward from the Bay of Bengal and repeated northward migrations of the regional tropical convergence zone. The RCM simulations are relatively insensitive to domain size in several respects: (1) the mean bias relative to the AGCM is similar for all three domains; (2) the variability simulated by the RCM is strongly correlated with that of the driving AGCM on both daily and seasonal time scales, even for the largest domain; (3) the mesoscale features and ISOs are not damped by the relative proximity of the lateral boundaries in the version with the smallest domain. Results (1) and (2) contrast strongly with a previous study for Europe carried out with the same model, probably due to inherent differences between mid-latitude and tropical dynamics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract  This study presents results from a downscaling simulation of the impact of a doubling of CO2 concentration. A multidecadal coupled simulation of a 1% per year increase of CO2 concentration with the Hadley Centre ocean-atmosphere model provides its sea-surface temperatures and deep soil climatological temperatures as a boundary condition to two 10-year integrations with a version of the ARPEGE-IFS atmosphere model. This global spectral model has a horizontal resolution varying between 60 km in the Mediterranean Sea and 700 km in the southern Pacific. The global impact as well as the regional impact over Europe in this time slice are examined and compared with results from other studies. Over Europe, our main focus, the model impact consists of a warming of about 2 °C, relatively uniform and with little seasonal dependence. There are precipitation increases of about 10% over the northern part in winter and spring, and 30% over the southern part in winter only. Precipitation decreases by 20% in the southern part in autumn. The day-to-day variability of the precipitation increases, except over the southern area in summer. No strong impact is found on the soil moisture. Budgets of physical fluxes are examined at the top of the atmosphere and at the land-atmosphere interface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Seasonal simulations of the Indian summer monsoon using a 50-km regional climate model (RCM) are described. Results from three versions of the RCM distinguished by different domain sizes are compared against those of the driving global general circulation model (AGCM). Precipitation over land is 20% larger in the RCMs due to stronger vertical motions arising from finer horizontal resolution. The resulting increase in condensational heating helps to intensify the monsoon trough relative to the AGCM. The RCM precipitation distributions show a strong orographically forced mesoscale component (similar in each version). This component is not present in the AGCM. The RCMs produce two qualitatively realistic intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) associated respectively with monsoon depressions which propagate northwestward from the Bay of Bengal and repeated northward migrations of the regional tropical convergence zone. The RCM simulations are relatively insensitive to domain size in several respects: (1) the mean bias relative to the AGCM is similar for all three domains; (2) the variability simulated by the RCM is strongly correlated with that of the driving AGCM on both daily and seasonal time scales, even for the largest domain; (3) the mesoscale features and ISOs are not damped by the relative proximity of the lateral boundaries in the version with the smallest domain. Results (1) and (2) contrast strongly with a previous study for Europe carried out with the same model, probably due to inherent differences between mid-latitude and tropical dynamics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  Nested limited-area modelling is one method of down-scaling general circulation model (GCM) climate change simulations. To give credibility to this method the nested limited-area model (LAM) must be shown to simulate local present-day climate conditions fairly accurately. Here seven different European limited-area models driven by observed boundary conditions (operational weather forecast analyses) are validated against observations, and inter-compared for summer and winter months. Relatively large biases are found. In summer large positive surface air temperature biases are found over southeast Europe. The main reason is deficiencies in the surface hydrological schemes causing an unrealistic drying of the soil. In at least one of the models, most likely several of them, an additional factor is an overestimation of incoming solar radiation. Apart from excessive precipitation in mountainous areas in some models they generally show a negative bias due to the drying and decreased advection from the Atlantic. In winter most models have a positive precipitation bias which seems to be caused by an enhancement of advection from the Atlantic and enhanced cyclone activity. Surface air temperature biases are negative probably due to an underestimation of the incoming longwave radiation.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of organic chemistry 10 (1945), S. 505-515 
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 62 (1940), S. 2357-2361 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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