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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Avicelase (exocellulase) ; CMCase (endocellulase) ; β-glucosidase ; xylariaceous fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Eighteen strains of xylariaceous fungi have been screened for higher activities of cellulolytic enzymes,Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was also examined for comparison. Strains ofXylaria anisopleura andX. regalis had higher endocellulase (CMCase) and exocellulase (Avicelase) activities after 2 weeks' incubation.Hypoxylon stygium produced the highest activity of β-glucosidase 3 days after inoculation. The optimum pH for these cellulolytic enzymes was approx. 5.0 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 37 to 50°C. A mixed culture process usingT. reesei QM 9414 andH. stygium was developed to obtain enhanced synthesis of cellulase. β-Glucosidase activities in the mixed culture increased within 48h whenH. stygium was introduced after 24h.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Cells ; collections ; cultures ; good laboratory practice ; guidelines ; management ; microbes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Although the principles and the necessity for good laboratory practice (GLP) guidelines to confirm the credibility, integrity, and quality of non-clinical laboratory studies have been known for more than a decade, culture collection activities are not subject to them. Because of recent advances in biotechnology, culture collections face increased demands not only for quality cultures but also current information. When applied in culture collections, GLP guidelines prove to be an excellent management tool as well as a cost-effective system of providing authentic and reliable microbial and cell cultures and associated data.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 87 (1984), S. 23-27 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cells of the somatic hyphae and conidia of Helminthosporium oryzae were multinucleate. The number of nuclei in each cell varied greatly. Conidial cells contained more nuclei than hyphal cells. Hyphal fusions with subsequent nuclear migration were observed in all parts of the colony. All these results strongly indicated that the abnormally high variation rate of H. oryzae among isolates or subcultures of the same isolate may be attributable to the perpetuation of heterokaryosis as a result of the high frequency of anastomosis and nuclear division.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 59 (1976), S. 61-63 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Factors influencing the production of arthroconidia in 24 strains of Trichosporon referable to 7 species were investigated. The best medium for T. beigelii (= T. cutaneum), an etiological agent of human disease, was dextrose-salts agar.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 66 (1979), S. 153-159 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract More than 300 reference strains representing 60 species and varieties ofFusarium cultures named according to different taxonomic systems are currently maintained at the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). They have been preserved by freeze-drying and by freezing and subsequent storage in liquid nitrogen (−196°C) to insure their viability without contamination, variation, mutation, or deterioration. The materials and procedures used at the ATCC for the acquisition, accessioning, cataloguing, preservation and distribution are described. Longevity storage data for the strains available for distribution are presented and discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Through the use of Anderson air samplers, 214 isolates ofCryptococcus neoformans were cultured from the air in a vacant tower in a large complex of buildings in Oklahoma City. The tower contained hundreds of pigeons, a massive amount of droppings, nests with eggs and young, dying and dead pigeons. All isolates were serotype A-D and self-sterile for the production of basidiospores. Among these, 193 were of the ‘alpha’ mating type, producing basidiospores when paired with ‘α’ mating type. No isolates of ‘α’ mating type were found. The remaining 21 isolates were untypable for their mating type. These findings imply that the infectious particles ofC. neoformans in nature are relatively small, nonencapsulated yeast cells andnot basidiospores.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cette revue contient l'information la plus récente sur les diverses substances isolées et identifiées du champignon “maitake”,Grifola, leur origine et leur signification. La majorité des références concerne les polysaccharides anti-tumoraux qui ont été extraits des corps fructifères et des mycelia mais certaines espèces peuvent aussi agir en tant que régulateurs métaboliques et contiennent des enzymes, des acides aminés essentiels, des lipides et des vitamines. L'utilisation de moisissures comestibles dans le développement et l'application d'activités biologiques bénéfiques offre l'avantage du principe actif sain et toléré par les humains. La culture de tels champignons comestibles procurerait la quantité adéquate de principe actif mais n'est pas nécessaire si les cultures myceliennes, cultivées par fermentation à grande échelle peuvent produire le même principe actif. On espère que cet article sera informatif, comme la recherche continue pour de nouvelles utilisations de moisissures comestibles et pour l'éducation du public au sujet de leur valeur potentielle.
    Notes: Abstract This review contains the most recent information on the various substances isolated and Identified in the maitake mushroomGrifola, their source and significance. The majority of the references concern the anti-tumour polysaccharides that have been extracted from fruiting bodies and mycelia, but certain species can also act as metabolic regulators and contain enzymes, essential amino acids, lipids and vitamins. The use of edible fungi in the development and application of beneficial biological activities ofters an advantage in that the active principle is safe and can be tolerated by humans. Cultivation of such edible mushrooms would provide an adequate supply but is unnescessary if mycelial cultures grown in large-scale fermentations can produce the same active principle. It is hoped that this article will be infromative as the search continues for new uses for edible fungi and for educating the public about their potential value.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: genetic resources; biotechnology; intellectual property right (IPR) protection; patent law; material transfer agreement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One of the most important policy instruments for the promotion of further biotechnology development is intellectual property right (IPR) protection. However, one cannot improve upon a biotechnological invention without physical access to the germplasm, making exchanges of genetic material necessary. A formal transfer agreement, which addresses the key issues of ownership, access, use, and equitable benefit-sharing, is a powerful legal instrument for intellectual property. Other restrictions are generally imposed as a result of national and international safety regulations. Forming strategic alliances, such as joint ventures, collaborative research agreements, joint research and development agreements, and manufacturing and distribution alliances to exploit the economic value of genetic material, provides scientists with the mechanisms they need to bring their research material and products to the marketplace.
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