Keywords: genetic resources; biotechnology; intellectual property right (IPR) protection; patent law; material transfer agreement
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
One of the most important policy instruments for the promotion of further biotechnology development is intellectual property right (IPR) protection. However, one cannot improve upon a biotechnological invention without physical access to the germplasm, making exchanges of genetic material necessary. A formal transfer agreement, which addresses the key issues of ownership, access, use, and equitable benefit-sharing, is a powerful legal instrument for intellectual property. Other restrictions are generally imposed as a result of national and international safety regulations. Forming strategic alliances, such as joint ventures, collaborative research agreements, joint research and development agreements, and manufacturing and distribution alliances to exploit the economic value of genetic material, provides scientists with the mechanisms they need to bring their research material and products to the marketplace.
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