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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La mycoflore de deux aliments fermentés, populaires au Sierra Leone, l'ogi de maïs (Zea mays Linn) et le foofoo de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) est déterminée avant, pendant et après fermentation. Les grains de maïs contiennentAspergellus flavus, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii etPernicillium citrinum. On a extrait les aflatoxines B1 et G1 ainsi que l'ochratoxine A de ces grains. Les tubercules frais de manioc n'ont pas de mycoflore mais le produit fermenté conservé, le foofoo ‘dry ball’, contientA. flavus, A. ochraceus etP. citrinum. La participation des moisissures n'a été observée dans aucun des deux processus de fermentation. L'ogi et le foofoo ‘dry ball’ contiennent aussi des traces d'aflatoxine G1. Dans l'ogi, la quantité d'ochratoxine A est quasi la même que dans les grains de maïs, tandis que l'aflatoxine B1 est déteetée en quantité significativement moindre. En plus des mycotoxines connues, un certain nombre de composés fluorescents non-identifiés ont pu être isolés mais seulement du maïs et du foofoo ‘dry ball’.
    Notes: Summary The mycoflora of two popular fermented foodstuffs of Sierra Leone, ogi from maize (Zea mays L.) and foofoo from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), were determined before, during and after fermentation. Maize kernels containedAspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, A. tamarii andPenicillium citrinum. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 and ochratoxin A were extracted from these kernels. Fresh cassava tubers had no mycoflora but the stored fermented product, ‘dry ball’ foofoo, containedA. flavus, A. ochraceus andP. citrinum. The participation of fungi in either fermentation process was not observed. Ogi and ‘dry ball’ foofoo also contained trace amounts of aflatoxin G1. In ogi, while the amount of ochratoxin A was much the same as on the maize kernels, significantly low amounts of aflatoxin B1 were detected. In addition to the known mycotoxins, a number of unidentified fluorescent compounds were isolated only in maize and ‘dry ball’ foofoo.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Ogiri (fermented sesame seeds) ; Aspergillus spp
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract ‘Ogiri’ (fermented sesame seeds) was prepared in the laboratory and at home by selected participants. No fungal participation was observed during the normal fermentation process. However, fungal contamination was observed when improper handling techniques were employed. Out of the 49 samples examined, 41 fungal isolates were made. Aspergillus spp were the dominant group irrespective of the locality. Toxigenic Aspergillus included A. flavus Link ex Fries, A. tamarii Kita and A. ochraceus Wilhelm. P. citrinum Thom was the only toxigenic Penicillium isolated. The role of the different types of wraps used for the fermentation, marketing and storage of the product was also determined.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Breast milk ; Ochratoxin A ; Sierra Leone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast milks from 113 mothers in two ‘Under-Five Clinics’ in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone, namely, Njala and Bo, were examined for their mycotoxin content. Only 10 were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight per cent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin A (OTA). Few samples (15%) had a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six (32%) had two mycotoxins and 50 (40%) had three or more. The occurrence of OTA in combination with various aflatoxins was recorded. It is concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to OTA and aflatoxins at levels which in some cases far exceed those permissible in animal feed in developed countries.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L) from four different geographic locations in Sierra Leone were sampled for their mycoflora. Three toxigenic Aspergillus species: A. flavus Link ex Fries, A. ochraceus Wilhelm, and A. tamarii Kita were common to all samples. Penicillium citrinum Thom and two Fusarium sp. were found in samples from two localities. The mycotoxins aflatoxin B1 and G1, ochratoxin A and B, and citrinin were positively identified.
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