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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9368
    Keywords: sweet orange ; Citrus ; woody ; transformation ; Agrobacterium ; mature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Regeneration and transformation systems from mature plant material of woody fruit species have to be achieved as a necessary requirement for the introduction of useful genes into specific cultivars and the rapid evaluation of resulting horticultural traits. We report here, for the first time, a procedure for genetic transformation and regeneration of mature tissues of woody plants that overcomes the long juvenile periods and high heterozygosity that are characteristic of most of these species. An improved regeneration frequency from mature explants was obtained by invigoration of the plant material through grafting of mature buds on juvenile seedlings. Co-cultivation of the explants in feederplates after inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens resulted in enhanced transformation frequencies. Furthermore, in vitro shoot-tip grafting of the regenerated mature shoots on seedling rootstocks provided a rapid and efficient system for plant production. Citrus is the most extensivel y grown fruit crop worldwide and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) accounts for approximately 70% of the Citrus total production. Mature transgenic sweet orange plants have been obtained, which flowered and bore fruit in 14 months
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Pineapple ; Sweet orange ; Agrobacterium tumefaciens ; Genetic transformation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants have been obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. An hypervirulent A. tumefaciens strain harboring a binary vector that contains the chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) and ß-glucuronidase (GUS) genes was cocultivated with stem segments from in vivo grown seedlings. Shoots regenerated under kanamycin selection were harvested from the stem segments within 12 weeks. Shoot basal portions were assayed for GUS activity and the remaining portions were shoot tip grafted in vitro for production of plants. Integration of the GUS gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. This transformation procedure showed the highest transgenic plant production efficiency reported for Citrus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4935
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Specific binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP-stimulated c y c l i c AMP accumulation were studied in small intestinal epithelial cells (both of crypt and villous levels) 3, 7 and 14 d after a 60% resection of the small intestine . The affinity, but not the binding capacity, of VIP receptors decreased during the adaptive hyperplastic response. Basal cyclic AMP levels were similar in cells of both control and resected rats. Resection induced a decrease of potency, but not of efficiency, of VIP on the stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: urokinase-type plasminogen activator ; ERK ; MAPK ; c-raf ; AP-1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The urokinase-type plasminogen activator contributes to tissue remodeling by controlling the synthesis of the extracellular matrix-degrading plasmin. We undertook a study to determine the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in the regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in a squamous cell carcinoma cell line (UM-SCC-1) that contains a transcriptionally activated urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene. Transient transfection studies using a CAT reporter driven by the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promoter, which had progressive 5′ deletions or which had been point-mutated, indicated the requirement of binding sites for AP-1 (-1967) and PEA3 (-1973) for its maximal activation. Expression of a mutant jun protein, which lacks the transactivation domain, caused a dose-dependent repression of a CAT reporter driven by either the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promoter or three tandem AP-1 repeats upstream of a thymidine kinase minimal promoter indicating the importance of AP-1-binding transcription factor(s) in the regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator synthesis. Mobility shift assays with UM-SCC-1 nuclear extract revealed binding of fos and junD proteins to an oligonucleotide spanning the AP-1 site at -1967. In-gel kinase assays indicated the constitutive activation of ERK1, which regulates fos synthesis via phosphorylation of p621CT, but not ERK2, in UM-SCC-1 cells. Moreover, the expression of a dominant-negative ERK1, but not ERK2, repressed urokinase-type plasminogen activator promoter activity. Similarly, interfering with the function of the c-raf serine-threonine kinase, which lies upstream of ERK1, by the expression of a kinase-inactive c-raf repressed the activity of a CAT reporter driven by either the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promotor or tandem AP-1 repeats. These data suggest that urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in UM-SCC-1 cells is regulated partly by an ERK1, but not ERK2, -dependent signaling pathway. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Citrus trees have a long juvenile phase that delays their reproductive development by between 6 and 20 years, depending on the species. With the aim of accelerating their flowering time, we transformed juvenile citrus seedlings to constitutively express the Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) or APETALA1 (AP1) ...
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