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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Applied Ecology ; Biodiversity ; Aquatic biology ; Forests and forestry ; Trees ; Life sciences ; Applied Ecology ; Tree Biology ; Biodiversity ; Forestry Management ; Freshwater & Marine Ecology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789048187256
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: There is a limited knowledge about the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on the Amazon basin, the world's largest tropical rain forest and a major factor in the global carbon cycle. Seasonal precipitation in the Andean watershed annually causes a several month-long inundation of the floodplains along the Amazon River that induces the formation of annual rings in trees of the flooded forests. Radial growth of trees is mainly restricted to the nonflooded period and thus the ring width corresponds to its duration. This allows the construction of a tree-ring chronology of the long-living hardwood species Piranhea trifoliata Baill. (Euphorbiaceae). El Niño causes anomalously low precipitation in the catchment that results in a significantly lower water discharge of the Amazon River and consequently in an extension of the vegetation period. In those years tree rings are significantly wider. Thus the tree-ring record can be considered as a robust indicator reflecting the mean climate conditions of the whole Western Amazon basin. We present a more than 200-year long chronology, which is the first ENSO-sensitive dendroclimatic proxy of the Amazon basin and permits the dating of preinstrumental El Niño events. Time series analyses of our data indicate that during the last two centuries the severity of El Niño increased significantly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. Amazonian terrestrial invertebrates produce high population densities during favourable periods and may suffer a drastic decrease during occasional floods and droughts. However, the monomodal, predictable flood pulse of the larger Amazonian rivers favours the development of morphological (respiratory organs, wing-dimorphism), phenological (synchronization of life cycles, univoltine mode of life), physiological (flooding ability, gonad dormancy, alternating number of developmental stages), and behavioural adaptations (migration, temporal diving) with numerous interactions.2. In lowlands of Central Europe, the flood pulse of large rivers is less predictable than in Central Amazonia and is superimposed by the seasonal light/temperature pulse (summer/winter regime). Some terrestrial invertebrates show physiological resistance against inundation or drought, phenologies fitting the normal annual rhythm of water level fluctuation (quiescence or diapause of eggs or adult invertebrates), high dispersal ability and migration. However, most species survive simply using a `risk strategy', combining high reproduction rates, dispersal and reimmigration following catastrophic events.3. The diversity of species in terrestrial invertebrates is lower in lowland riverine ecosystems of Central Amazonia and Central Europe compared with the respective uplands because of flood stress in these systems. However, floodplains in Central Amazonia possess a greater number of endemic species in comparison with Central European floodplains because of long periods of fairly stable climatic conditions in comparison with large palaeoclimatic changes in Central Europe.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The environmentalist 3 (1983), S. 24-34 
    ISSN: 1573-2991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Summary Different existing concepts for the classification of Amazonian waterbodies are discussed. An additional approach is suggested to characterize aquatic habitats, based on hydrological and morphological parameters. The state of knowledge about the frequency, distribution and ecology of aquatic habitats is discussed. Human impacts on aquatic habitats in Amazonia and their vulnerability to them are evaluated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: biomass ; primary production ; herbaceous plants ; Amazonia ; floodplains
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The increase in biomass of different aquatic and terrestrial herbaceous plant communities was measured during various growth periods in the Amazon floodplain near Manaus. Maximum biomass varied from 4–11.2 t ha−1 dry weight in mixed annual terrestrial communities to 6–23 t ha−1 in aquatic annual species (Paspalum repens, Oryza perennis, Luziola spruceana and Hymenachne amplexicaulis) and 15.6–57.6 t ha−1 in communities of the perennial species Paspalum fasciculatum. Cumulative biomass of 3 successively growing annual species reached 30 t ha−1 a−1. Net primary production is considerably higher than maximum biomass. Paspalum fasciculatum reached 70 t during a growth period of 8 months. If one considers for annual species a monthly loss of 10–25% of the biomass, then net primary production in areas with three successive macrophyte communities and a cumulative maximum biomass of 30 t ha−1 is estimated to reach up to 50 t ha−1 a−1. Annual P/B ratio may reach about 3.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: man-made lakes ; floating vegetation ; Thailand ; invertebrate fauna
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Bung Borapet, a reservoir in Central Thailand, quantitative studies were made on stands of different floating hydrophytes with respect to their colonisation by aquatic invertebrates. Differences in animal colonisation between the stands are explained by a) type and morphological characteristics of the vegetation layer; b) the physico-chemical properties of the surrounding water. Biomass values are compared with those found in floating hydrophyte stands in other tropical regions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Amazonia ; fisheries ; abundance ; floodplain ; igapó ; várzea ; inundated forest ; community structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Amazonian floodplains, the flood cycle of the river is becoming the dominant seasonal factor, and fish communities are found to fluctuate greatly over the year. During inundation, fish migrate into floodplain forests to feed on fruits and seeds, in an area more than 300 000 km2 in size. To document patterns of species diversity, distribution, abundance and temporal dynamics and in order to describe the ecological importance of the inundated forest, floodplain fish were captured using variously sized gill nets in white and black water areas inside and outside the floodplain forests during low, rising, high and falling water level in 1990 and 1991. Dominance varies to some extent in white water between floodplain forest (0.06) and open water (0.11) while it is unchanged in black water (0.04). Black water fish communities were more diverse. Most abundant among white water fish were Liposarcus pardalis, Pygocentrus nattereri, and Pellona flavipinnis, for example, or Plagioscion squamsissimus, Serrasalmus rhombeus, and Serrasalmus manueli in black water. Among the most abundant white water fish, Colossoma macropomum, Mylossoma duriventre and Osteoglossum bicirrhosum occurred almost exclusively in inundated forests. Of the black water species there were a large number of species which were captured only in inundated forest, such as Geophagus cf. altifrons, Hoplias malabaricus, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum and Uaru amphiacanthoides. Catches varied with sample site, water level and direction of water level change. The average CPUE in white and black water was 190 and 41 g fish m−2 and day, respectively, with maximum yields at low water and minimum yields at high water. Comparing rising and falling water levels, a significantly higher quantity of fishes was captured at falling water level. In black water, fish catches from the floodplain forest exceeded the open water catch by 183 to 550%, depending on season. Differences in respect of white water are smaller (106–281%). Fish communities in the area under investigation seem to be stochastically assembled, with significant differences between white and black water only. Many fishes move into the floodplain forest not only to feed but probably also for other reasons – to seek shelter, for example.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9834
    Keywords: Amazon Basin ; floodplains ; tropical wetlands ; wetland disturbance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract High rainfall and its seasonal distribution cause periodic flooding of large areas in tropical South America. Floods result from lateral overflow of streams and rivers, or from sheet-flooding by rains as a consequence of poor drainage. Depending upon the size of the catchment area, flooding can occur with one peak (e.g., in the Amazon River and its large affluents) or in many peaks (e.g., in streams and small rivers). Vegetation cover of floodplains varies from different types of savannas and aquatic macrophyte communities to forests depending upon the hydrologic regime and local rainfall. Large differences exist in primary and secondary production due to large differences in nutrient levels in water and soils. An attempt is made to characterize the floodplains according to their hydrologic regimes, vegetation cover and nutrient status. The areal extent of different types of floodplains is estimated. The human impact is also evaluated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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