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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: carotenoids ; chlorophylls ; genetic analysis ; heterosis ; intraspecific variation ; photosystem 2 ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Young plants of maize inbred lines CE777, CE704, and CE810 and their F1 hybrids displaying a positive heterotic effect in various photosynthetic characteristics were exposed to low temperature during their early growth developmental stage. The photochemical activity of isolated mesophyll chloroplasts and the contents of photosynthetic pigments in leaves of stressed and non-stressed plants were compared with the aim to find out the possible changes in the relationship between parents and hybrids, and to determine the genetic basis of heterosis in F1 generation. Strong decrease in the content of chlorophylls was observed for all genotypes examined when plants were subjected to low growth temperature. Similar change was recorded for Hill reaction activity (HRA) of inbred lines but not of their F1 hybrids, and no significant response at all was found for photosystem 1 (PS1) activity or the total carotenoids content. The intraspecific variation due to differences between genotypes was found for most of photosynthetic characteristics examined. This variation was caused by the additive and dominance genetic effects. Positive dominance was the main cause of positive heterosis in HRA and in the contents of photosynthetic pigments and was much more pronounced in the stressed plants compared to the non-stressed ones. The maternal additive effects participated in the inheritance of contents of photosynthetic pigments in plants exposed to low temperature, too.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: diallel cross ; genetic analysis ; heterosis ; Hill reaction activity ; photosystem 1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Photochemical activity of isolated mesophyll chloroplasts was measured as Hill reaction activity (HRA) and photosystem 1 (PS1) activity in three diallel crosses of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and F1 hybrids. Statistically significant differences between genotypes together with positive heterotic effect in F1 generation were found for both traits studied. These differences were more pronounced when HRA or PS1 activity was expressed per leaf area unit or dry matter unit compared to the expression per chlorophyll content unit. Analysis of variance showed that both the genetic and non-genetic components of variation in the photochemical activity of isolated mesophyll chloroplasts are present in all three diallel crosses examined. The positive heterosis in F1 hybrids probably arises from non-additive genetic effects of a positive dominance type. Additive genetic effects were also statistically highly significant. We found no differences between reciprocal crosses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: Amaranthus retroflexus L. ; greenhouse and growth chamber ; herbicides ; photoinhibition ; photosystem 2 ; Poa annua L. ; Senecio vulgaris L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Significantly lower Hill reaction activity together with greater sensitivity to photoinhibitory conditions was observed at various irradiances in atrazine-resistant biotypes ofSenecio vulgaris L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Poa annua L. compared to the susceptible ones.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: chloroplast dimensions ; electron microscopy ; peripheral reticulum ; photosynthesis ; plastoglobuli ; starch ; stereology ; stroma ; thylakoids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Changes in Hill reaction activity (HRA) and ultrastructure of mesophyll cell (MC) chloroplasts were studied during the ontogeny of third leaf of maize plants using polarographic oxygen evolution measurement, transmission electron microscopy, and stereology. The chloroplast ultrastructure was compared in young (actively growing), mature, and senescing leaves of two different inbreds and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. Statistically significant differences in both HRA and MC chloroplast ultrastructure were observed between different stages of leaf ontogeny. Growth of plastoglobuli was the most striking characteristic of chloroplast maturation and senescence. The chloroplasts in mature and senescing leaves had a more developed system of thylakoids compared to the young leaves. Higher HRA was usually connected with higher thylakoid volume density of MC chloroplasts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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