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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-06-11
    Description: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase is a master growth promoter that nucleates two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Despite the diverse processes controlled by mTOR, few substrates are known. We defined the mTOR-regulated phosphoproteome by quantitative mass spectrometry and characterized the primary sequence motif specificity of mTOR using positional scanning peptide libraries. We found that the phosphorylation response to insulin is largely mTOR dependent and that mTOR exhibits a unique preference for proline, hydrophobic, and aromatic residues at the +1 position. The adaptor protein Grb10 was identified as an mTORC1 substrate that mediates the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase typical of cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a tumor suppressor and negative regulator of mTORC1. Our work clarifies how mTORC1 inhibits growth factor signaling and opens new areas of investigation in mTOR biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3177140/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hsu, Peggy P -- Kang, Seong A -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Zhang, Yi -- Ottina, Kathleen A -- Lim, Daniel -- Peterson, Timothy R -- Choi, Yongmun -- Gray, Nathanael S -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Marto, Jarrod A -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM68762/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-09/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 10;332(6035):1317-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1199498.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21659604" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; GRB10 Adaptor Protein/*metabolism ; Humans ; Insulin/metabolism ; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*metabolism ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Naphthyridines/pharmacology ; Phosphoproteins/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/*metabolism ; Proteome/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Sirolimus/pharmacology ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway promotes cell growth in response to many cues, including amino acids, which act through the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) to promote mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface, its site of activation. Although progress has been made in identifying positive regulators of the Rags, it is unknown if negative factors also exist. Here, we identify GATOR as a complex that interacts with the Rags and is composed of two subcomplexes we call GATOR1 and -2. Inhibition of GATOR1 subunits (DEPDC5, Nprl2, and Nprl3) makes mTORC1 signaling resistant to amino acid deprivation. In contrast, inhibition of GATOR2 subunits (Mios, WDR24, WDR59, Seh1L, and Sec13) suppresses mTORC1 signaling, and epistasis analysis shows that GATOR2 negatively regulates DEPDC5. GATOR1 has GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity for RagA and RagB, and its components are mutated in human cancer. In cancer cells with inactivating mutations in GATOR1, mTORC1 is hyperactive and insensitive to amino acid starvation, and such cells are hypersensitive to rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Thus, we identify a key negative regulator of the Rag GTPases and reveal that, like other mTORC1 regulators, Rag function can be deregulated in cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728654/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728654/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bar-Peled, Liron -- Chantranupong, Lynne -- Cherniack, Andrew D -- Chen, Walter W -- Ottina, Kathleen A -- Grabiner, Brian C -- Spear, Eric D -- Carter, Scott L -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA180271/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24CA143867/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 31;340(6136):1100-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1232044.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723238" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/*metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; GTPase-Activating Proteins ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Lysosomes/*enzymology ; Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/*enzymology/genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Proteins/*metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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