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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-02-18
    Description: Enhancers regulate spatiotemporal gene expression and impart cell-specific transcriptional outputs that drive cell identity. Super-enhancers (SEs), also known as stretch-enhancers, are a subset of enhancers especially important for genes associated with cell identity and genetic risk of disease. CD4(+) T cells are critical for host defence and autoimmunity. Here we analysed maps of mouse T-cell SEs as a non-biased means of identifying key regulatory nodes involved in cell specification. We found that cytokines and cytokine receptors were the dominant class of genes exhibiting SE architecture in T cells. Nonetheless, the locus encoding Bach2, a key negative regulator of effector differentiation, emerged as the most prominent T-cell SE, revealing a network in which SE-associated genes critical for T-cell biology are repressed by BACH2. Disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms for immune-mediated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, were highly enriched for T-cell SEs versus typical enhancers or SEs in other cell lineages. Intriguingly, treatment of T cells with the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib disproportionately altered the expression of rheumatoid arthritis risk genes with SE structures. Together, these results indicate that genes with SE architecture in T cells encompass a variety of cytokines and cytokine receptors but are controlled by a 'guardian' transcription factor, itself endowed with an SE. Thus, enumeration of SEs allows the unbiased determination of key regulatory nodes in T cells, which are preferentially modulated by pharmacological intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409450/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409450/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vahedi, Golnaz -- Kanno, Yuka -- Furumoto, Yasuko -- Jiang, Kan -- Parker, Stephen C J -- Erdos, Michael R -- Davis, Sean R -- Roychoudhuri, Rahul -- Restifo, Nicholas P -- Gadina, Massimo -- Tang, Zhonghui -- Ruan, Yijun -- Collins, Francis S -- Sartorelli, Vittorio -- O'Shea, John J -- 105663/Z/14/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 CA186714/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AR041159-07/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):558-62. doi: 10.1038/nature14154. Epub 2015 Feb 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lymphocyte Cell Biology Section, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Translational Immunology Section, NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25686607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*genetics/immunology/pathology ; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Janus Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Piperidines/pharmacology ; Pyrimidines/pharmacology ; Pyrroles/pharmacology ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology/*metabolism/*pathology ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; p300-CBP Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: Obesity and its associated comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus and hepatic steatosis) contribute to approximately 2.5 million deaths annually and are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession. Neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide predominantly localized in specialized enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and released by fat ingestion, facilitates fatty acid translocation in rat intestine, and stimulates the growth of various cancers. The effects of NT are mediated through three known NT receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3; also known as NTSR1, 2, and NTSR3, respectively). Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, a role for NT as a causative factor in these diseases is unknown. Here we show that NT-deficient mice demonstrate significantly reduced intestinal fat absorption and are protected from obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance associated with high fat consumption. We further demonstrate that NT attenuates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulates fatty acid absorption in mice and in cultured intestinal cells, and that this occurs through a mechanism involving NTR1 and NTR3 (also known as sortilin). Consistent with the findings in mice, expression of NT in Drosophila midgut enteroendocrine cells results in increased lipid accumulation in the midgut, fat body, and oenocytes (specialized hepatocyte-like cells) and decreased AMPK activation. Remarkably, in humans, we show that both obese and insulin-resistant subjects have elevated plasma concentrations of pro-NT, and in longitudinal studies among non-obese subjects, high levels of pro-NT denote a doubling of the risk of developing obesity later in life. Our findings directly link NT with increased fat absorption and obesity and suggest that NT may provide a prognostic marker of future obesity and a potential target for prevention and treatment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Jing -- Song, Jun -- Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y -- Liu, Yajuan -- Rychahou, Piotr -- Jiang, Kai -- Starr, Marlene E -- Kim, Ji Tae -- Harris, Jennifer W -- Yiannikouris, Frederique B -- Katz, Wendy S -- Nilsson, Peter M -- Orho-Melander, Marju -- Chen, Jing -- Zhu, Haining -- Fahrenholz, Timothy -- Higashi, Richard M -- Gao, Tianyan -- Morris, Andrew J -- Cassis, Lisa A -- Fan, Teresa W-M -- Weiss, Heidi L -- Dobner, Paul R -- Melander, Olle -- Jia, Jianhang -- Evers, B Mark -- P01 CA163223/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P20 GM103527/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK048498/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES022191/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079684/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL073085/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL12050/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS077284/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG10885/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA160003/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA165990/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK097215/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7603):411-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17662.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, 205 02 Malmo, Sweden. ; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Center for Structural Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky and Lexington Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193687" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Phosphorus (P) sorption in sediments plays a significant role in trophic status of a lake. This study investigated the characteristics of P sorption in sediments from three lakes with different trophic statuses (moderately eutrophic, lightly eutrophic and moderately trophic) through kinetic, batch equilibrium and thermodynamic experiments. Results show that pseudo-second-order kinetics best describe P sorption in sediments from the three lakes. Fitting by modified Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicates that the moderately trophic lake sediment has higher sorption capacity (maximum of 0.848 mg g –1 at 35°C) than the sediments of the other two lakes at different temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35°C). Thermodynamic results indicate that the processes of P sorption of the three sediments are spontaneous, entropy-driven and endothermic reactions. The risk of P release in sediments was analysed according to the calculated results of isotherms combined with the change in P fraction. Sediments from the moderately eutrophic lake act as a source in summer. The lightly eutrophic and moderately trophic lakes act as sources in spring and winter, and a pool in summer and autumn, respectively. Furthermore, the amounts of reductant-soluble P, calcium-bound P and iron-bound P are significantly related to the sorption capacity of sediments from the three lakes ( p 〈 0.05). The different sediments have different P release risk, and P fraction in sediment is one of the significant factors of P sorption.
    Keywords: environmental science
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses, and the emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be important contributors to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties. The loop formed in the region of residue 250 (250 loop) and the domain formed by the loops containing residues 370, 400, and 430 were identified as major antigenic regions. MAbs 1E8, 2F6, 10F4, and 11B2, which recognize these two antigenic domains, were characterized in depth. These four MAbs differ in their abilities to inhibit cleavage of small and large substrates (methyl-umbelliferyl-acetyl neuraminic acid [MU-NANA] and fetuin, respectively) in NA inhibition assays. 1E8 and 11B2 did not inhibit NA cleavage of either MU-NANA or fetuin, and 2F6 inhibited cleavage of fetuin alone, whereas 10F4 inhibited cleavage of both substrates. All four MAbs reduced the in vitro spread of viruses carrying either the wild-type N9 or N9 with antiviral-resistant mutations but to different degrees. These MAbs have different in vivo levels of effectiveness: 10F4 was the most effective in protecting mice against challenge with A(H7N9) virus, 2F6 was less effective, and 11B2 failed to protect BALB/c mice at the doses tested. Our study confirms that NA-specific antibodies can protect against A(H7N9) infection and suggests that in vitro properties can be used to rank antibodies with therapeutic potential. IMPORTANCE The novel A(H7N9) viruses that emerged in China in 2013 continue to infect humans, with a high fatality rate. The most recent outbreak resulted in a larger number of human cases than previous epidemic waves. Due to the absence of a licensed vaccine and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses, there is a need to develop alternative approaches to prevent or treat A(H7N9) infection. We have made a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neuraminidase (NA) of A(H7N9) viruses; some of these MAbs are effective in inhibiting viruses that are resistant to antivirals used to treat A(H7N9) patients. Binding avidity, inhibition of NA activity, and plaque formation correlated with the effectiveness of these MAbs to protect mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. This study identifies in vitro measures that can be used to predict the in vivo efficacy of NA-specific antibodies, providing a way to select MAbs for further therapeutic development.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: The self-assembly of peptides into ordered nanostructures is important for understanding both peptide molecular interactions and nanotechnological applications. However, because of the complexity and various self-assembling pathways of peptide molecules, design of self-assembling helical peptides with high controllability and tunability is challenging. We report a new self-assembling mode that uses in-tether chiral center-induced helical peptides as a platform for tunable peptide self-assembly with good controllability. It was found that self-assembling behavior was governed by in-tether substitutional groups, where chirality determined the formation of helical structures and aromaticity provided the driving force for self-assembly. Both factors were essential for peptide self-assembly to occur. Experiments and theoretical calculations indicate long-range crystal-like packing in the self-assembly, which was stabilized by a synergy of interpeptide - and -sulfur interactions and hydrogen bond networks. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nanomaterials were demonstrated to be promising candidate materials for applications in biocompatible electrochemical supercapacitors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: A method of using intense Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) laser pulse is proposed to generate ultrarelativistic (multi-GeV) electron beams with controllable helical structures based on a hybrid electron acceleration regime in underdense plasmas, where both the longitudinal charge-separation electric field and transverse laser electric field play the role of accelerating the electrons. By directly interacting with the LG laser pulse, the topological structure of the accelerated electron beam is manipulated and it is spatially separated into multi-slice helical bunches. These results are clearly demonstrated by our three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and explained by a theoretical model based on electron phase-space dynamics. This novel regime offers a new degree of freedom for manipulating ultrashort and ultrarelativistic electrons, and it provides an efficient way for generating high-energy high-angular-momentum helical electron beams, which may find applications in wide-rangi...
    Electronic ISSN: 1367-2630
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-28
    Description: BACKGROUND: Measurement of DNA derived from different tissues in the circulating DNA pool can provide important information regarding the presence of many pathological conditions. However, existing methods involving genome-wide bisulfite sequencing are relatively expensive and may present challenges for large-scale analysis. METHODS: Through identifying differentially methylated regions in the liver and colon compared with other tissues, we identified 2 markers and developed corresponding droplet digital PCR assays. Plasma concentrations of liver-derived and colon-derived DNA were measured for 13 liver transplant recipients, 40 liver cancer patients, and 62 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (27 with and 35 without liver metastases). RESULTS: In liver transplant recipients, the fractional concentration of liver-derived DNA measured using the liver-specific methylation marker and donor-specific alleles showed good correlation (Pearson R = 0.99). In liver cancer patients, the concentration of liver-derived DNA correlated positively with the maximal dimension of the tumor (Spearman R = 0.74). In CRC patients with and without liver metastasis, the plasma concentrations of colon-derived DNA (median, 138 copies/mL and 4 copies/mL, respectively) were increased compared with the 30 healthy controls (26 had undetectable concentrations). The absolute concentration of liver-derived DNA provided a better differentiation between CRC patients with and without liver metastasis compared with the fractional concentration (area under ROC curve, 0.85 vs 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of plasma DNA with tissue-specific methylation patterns using droplet digital PCR is applicable for the investigation of cancers and assessing organ transplantation. This approach is useful for differentiating patients with and without metastases to other organs.
    Keywords: Molecular Diagnostics and Genetics
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-09-26
    Description: The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding puts us on a desirable cost trajectory, this approach may well be more broadly applicable to other battery chemistries.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Kangli -- Jiang, Kai -- Chung, Brice -- Ouchi, Takanari -- Burke, Paul J -- Boysen, Dane A -- Bradwell, David J -- Kim, Hojong -- Muecke, Ulrich -- Sadoway, Donald R -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 16;514(7522):348-50. doi: 10.1038/nature13700. Epub 2014 Sep 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252975" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-11-05
    Description: Control of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations is critical for cancer cell survival. We show that, in human lung cancer cells, acute increases in intracellular concentrations of ROS caused inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) through oxidation of Cys(358). This inhibition of PKM2 is required to divert glucose flux into the pentose phosphate pathway and thereby generate sufficient reducing potential for detoxification of ROS. Lung cancer cells in which endogenous PKM2 was replaced with the Cys(358) to Ser(358) oxidation-resistant mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and impaired tumor formation in a xenograft model. Besides promoting metabolic changes required for proliferation, the regulatory properties of PKM2 may confer an additional advantage to cancer cells by allowing them to withstand oxidative stress.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3471535/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3471535/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anastasiou, Dimitrios -- Poulogiannis, George -- Asara, John M -- Boxer, Matthew B -- Jiang, Jian-kang -- Shen, Min -- Bellinger, Gary -- Sasaki, Atsuo T -- Locasale, Jason W -- Auld, Douglas S -- Thomas, Craig J -- Vander Heiden, Matthew G -- Cantley, Lewis C -- 1P30CA147882/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA089021/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA117969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01-CA089021/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01-CA117969-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM056203-13/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R03MH085679/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Dec 2;334(6060):1278-83. doi: 10.1126/science.1211485. Epub 2011 Nov 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine-Division of Signal Transduction, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052977" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylcysteine/pharmacology ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Antioxidants/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival ; Cysteine/chemistry ; Diamide/pharmacology ; Enzyme Activators/pharmacology ; Glucose/metabolism ; Glutathione/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Mutant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neoplasms, Experimental/metabolism/pathology ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxidative Stress ; Pentose Phosphate Pathway ; Protein Subunits ; Pyruvate Kinase/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/*metabolism ; Transplantation, Heterologous
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; INITIATION ; DEPENDENCE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Adolescent ; NICOTINIC RECEPTOR GENES ; HEAVY SMOKING ; ADULT RATS
    Abstract: Context: Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective: To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources: Primary data. Study Selection: Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. DataExtraction: Uniform statistical analysis scripts were runlocally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD 〉20) and light smokers (CPD 〈= 10) with age-at-onset information, re-ducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset 〈= 16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset 〉16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with ther s16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis: Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR=1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n=19 505) (P=.01). Conclusion: These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22868939
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