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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-10-21
    Description: In nature, helical macromolecules such as collagen, chitin and cellulose are critical to the morphogenesis and functionality of various hierarchically structured materials. During tissue formation, these chiral macromolecules are secreted and undergo self-templating assembly, a process whereby multiple kinetic factors influence the assembly of the incoming building blocks to produce non-equilibrium structures. A single macromolecule can form diverse functional structures when self-templated under different conditions. Collagen type I, for instance, forms transparent corneal tissues from orthogonally aligned nematic fibres, distinctively coloured skin tissues from cholesteric phase fibre bundles, and mineralized tissues from hierarchically organized fibres. Nature's self-templated materials surpass the functional and structural complexity achievable by current top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods. However, self-templating has not been thoroughly explored for engineering synthetic materials. Here we demonstrate the biomimetic, self-templating assembly of chiral colloidal particles (M13 phage) into functional materials. A single-step process produces long-range-ordered, supramolecular films showing multiple levels of hierarchical organization and helical twist. Three distinct supramolecular structures are created by this approach: nematic orthogonal twists, cholesteric helical ribbons and smectic helicolidal nanofilaments. Both chiral liquid crystalline phase transitions and competing interfacial forces at the interface are found to be critical factors in determining the morphology of the templated structures during assembly. The resulting materials show distinctive optical and photonic properties, functioning as chiral reflector/filters and structural colour matrices. In addition, M13 phages with genetically incorporated bioactive peptide ligands direct both soft and hard tissue growth in a hierarchically organized manner. Our assembly approach provides insight into the complexities of hierarchical assembly in nature and could be expanded to other chiral molecules to engineer sophisticated functional helical-twisted structures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Woo-Jae -- Oh, Jin-Woo -- Kwak, Kyungwon -- Lee, Byung Yang -- Meyer, Joel -- Wang, Eddie -- Hexemer, Alexander -- Lee, Seung-Wuk -- R21DE018360/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 19;478(7369):364-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10513.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteriophage M13/chemistry/*physiology ; Biomimetic Materials/chemical synthesis/*chemistry ; Cell Line ; Macromolecular Substances/chemistry ; Mice ; Optical Rotation ; Tissue Culture Techniques/instrumentation ; Virion/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 191 (1994), S. 233-237 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: To address how L2-specific antibodies prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the genital tract, we generated neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) WW1, a rat IgG2a that binds L2 residues 17 to 36 (like mouse MAb RG1), and JWW3, a mouse IgG2b derivative of Mab24 specific for L2 residues 58 to 64. By Western blotting, WW1 recognized L2 of 29/34 HPV genotypes tested, compared to only 13/34 for RG1 and 25/34 for JWW3. WW1 IgG and F(ab') 2 bound HPV16 pseudovirions similarly; however, whole IgG provided better protection against HPV vaginal challenge. Passive transfer of WW1 IgG was similarly protective in wild-type and neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-deficient mice, suggesting that protection by WW1 IgG is not mediated by FcRn-dependent transcytosis. Rather, local epithelial disruption, required for genital infection and induced by either brushing or nonoxynol-9 treatment, released serum IgG in the genital tract, suggesting Fc-independent exudation. Depletion of neutrophils and macrophages reduced protection of mice upon passive transfer of whole WW1 or JWW3 IgGs. Similarly, IgG-mediated protection by L2 MAbs WW1, JWW3, and RG1 was reduced in Fc receptor knockout compared to wild-type mice. However, levels of in vitro neutralization by WW1 IgG were similar in TRIM21 knockout and wild-type cells, indicating that Fc does not contribute to antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN). In conclusion, the Fc domain of L2-specific IgGs is not active for ADIN, but it opsonizes bound extracellular pseudovirions for phagocytes in protecting mice from intravaginal HPV challenge. Systemically administered neutralizing IgG can access the site of infection in an abrasion via exudation without the need for FcRn-mediated transcytosis. IMPORTANCE At least 15 alpha HPV types are causative agents for 5% of all cancers worldwide, and beta types have been implicated in nonmelanoma skin cancer, whereas others produce benign papillomas, such as genital warts, associated with considerable morbidity and health systems costs. Vaccines targeting the minor capsid protein L2 have the potential to provide broad-spectrum immunity against medically relevant HPVs of divergent genera via the induction of broadly cross-neutralizing serum IgG. Here we examine the mechanisms by which L2-specific serum IgG reaches the viral inoculum in the genital tract to effect protection. Abrasion of the vaginal epithelium allows the virus to access and infect basal keratinocytes, and our findings suggest that this also permits the local exudation of neutralizing IgG and vaccine-induced sterilizing immunity. We also demonstrate the importance of Fc-mediated phagocytosis of L2 antibody-virion complexes for humoral immunity, a protective mechanism that is not detected by current in vitro neutralization assays.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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