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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Pipecolic acid (Pip), a non-proteinaceous product of lysine catabolism, is an important regulator of immunity in plants and humans alike. In plants, Pip accumulates upon pathogen infection and has been associated with systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Pip-mediated signaling and its relationship to other known SAR inducers remain unknown. We show that in plants, Pip confers SAR by increasing levels of the free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act upstream of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Plants defective in NO, ROS, G3P, or salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis accumulate reduced Pip in their distal uninfected tissues although they contain wild-type–like levels of Pip in their infected leaves. These data indicate that de novo synthesis of Pip in distal tissues is dependent on both SA and G3P and that distal levels of SA and G3P play an important role in SAR. These results also suggest a unique scenario whereby metabolites in a signaling cascade can stimulate each other’s biosynthesis depending on their relative levels and their site of action.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we conducted a coordinated genotyping study within the International Lung Cancer Consortium based on independent studies that were not included in previous genome-wide association studies. METHODS: Genotype data for single-nucleotide polymorphisms at chromosomes 15q25 (rs16969968, rs8034191), 5p15 (rs2736100, rs402710), and 6p21 (rs2256543, rs4324798) from 21 case-control studies for 11 645 lung cancer case patients and 14 954 control subjects, of whom 85% were white and 15% were Asian, were pooled. Associations between the variants and the risk of lung cancer were estimated by logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Associations between 15q25 and the risk of lung cancer were replicated in white ever-smokers (rs16969968: odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 1.32, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-26)), and this association was stronger for those diagnosed at younger ages. There was no association in never-smokers or in Asians between either of the 15q25 variants and the risk of lung cancer. For the chromosome 5p15 region, we confirmed statistically significant associations in whites for both rs2736100 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.20, P(trend) = 1 x 10(-10)) and rs402710 (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19, P(trend) = 5 x 10(-8)) and identified similar associations in Asians (rs2736100: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.35, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-5); rs402710: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27, P(trend) = .007). The associations between the 5p15 variants and lung cancer differed by histology; odds ratios for rs2736100 were highest in adenocarcinoma and for rs402710 were highest in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. This pattern was observed in both ethnic groups. Neither of the two variants on chromosome 6p21 was associated with the risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In this international genetic association study of lung cancer, previous associations found in white populations were replicated and new associations were identified in Asian populations. Future genetic studies of lung cancer should include detailed stratification by histology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20548021
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-11-08
    Description: A formidable challenge in neural repair in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is the long distances that regenerating axons often need to travel in order to reconnect with their targets. Thus, a sustained capacity for axon regeneration is critical for achieving functional restoration. Although deletion of either phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) individually promoted significant optic nerve regeneration, such regrowth tapered off around 2 weeks after the crush injury. Here we show that, remarkably, simultaneous deletion of both PTEN and SOCS3 enables robust and sustained axon regeneration. We further show that PTEN and SOCS3 regulate two independent pathways that act synergistically to promote enhanced axon regeneration. Gene expression analyses suggest that double deletion not only results in the induction of many growth-related genes, but also allows RGCs to maintain the expression of a repertoire of genes at the physiological level after injury. Our results reveal concurrent activation of mTOR and STAT3 pathways as key for sustaining long-distance axon regeneration in adult CNS, a crucial step towards functional recovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3240702/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3240702/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sun, Fang -- Park, Kevin K -- Belin, Stephane -- Wang, Dongqing -- Lu, Tao -- Chen, Gang -- Zhang, Kang -- Yeung, Cecil -- Feng, Guoping -- Yankner, Bruce A -- He, Zhigang -- DP1 AG044161/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018660/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021342/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021342-01A1/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021374/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021526/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021526-01/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 6;480(7377):372-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10594.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children's Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22056987" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/pathology/*physiology ; Cell Growth Processes/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nerve Crush ; Nerve Regeneration/*physiology ; Optic Nerve/cytology/growth & development/pathology ; Optic Nerve Injuries/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; PTEN Phosphohydrolase/*deficiency/genetics ; Retinal Ganglion Cells/metabolism ; STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/*deficiency/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-11-16
    Description: Meiosis is a germ-cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction. Before the initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps, including the global erasure of DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) in CpG-rich DNA. Although several epigenetic regulators, such as Dnmt3l and the histone methyltransferases G9a and Prdm9, have been reported to be crucial for meiosis, little is known about how the expression of meiotic genes is regulated and how their expression contributes to normal meiosis. Using a loss-of-function approach in mice, here we show that the 5mC-specific dioxygenase Tet1 has an important role in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes. Tet1 deficiency significantly reduces female germ-cell numbers and fertility. Univalent chromosomes and unresolved DNA double-strand breaks are also observed in Tet1-deficient oocytes. Tet1 deficiency does not greatly affect the genome-wide demethylation that takes place in primordial germ cells, but leads to defective DNA demethylation and decreased expression of a subset of meiotic genes. Our study thus establishes a function for Tet1 in meiosis and meiotic gene activation in female germ cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528851/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528851/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yamaguchi, Shinpei -- Hong, Kwonho -- Liu, Rui -- Shen, Li -- Inoue, Azusa -- Diep, Dinh -- Zhang, Kun -- Zhang, Yi -- R01GM097253/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK089565/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01DK089565/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):443-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11709. Epub 2012 Nov 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, WAB-149G, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151479" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Cell Count ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Methylation/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology/pathology ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Infertility, Female/pathology ; Male ; Meiosis/*genetics ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Oocytes/cytology/*metabolism/pathology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: P2Y receptors (P2YRs), a family of purinergic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are activated by extracellular nucleotides. There are a total of eight distinct functional P2YRs expressed in human, which are subdivided into P2Y1-like receptors and P2Y12-like receptors. Their ligands are generally charged molecules with relatively low bioavailability and stability in vivo, which limits our understanding of this receptor family. P2Y12R regulates platelet activation and thrombus formation, and several antithrombotic drugs targeting P2Y12R--including the prodrugs clopidogrel (Plavix) and prasugrel (Effient) that are metabolized and bind covalently, and the nucleoside analogue ticagrelor (Brilinta) that acts directly on the receptor--have been approved for the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction. However, limitations of these drugs (for example, a very long half-life of clopidogrel action and a characteristic adverse effect profile of ticagrelor) suggest that there is an unfulfilled medical need for developing a new generation of P2Y12R inhibitors. Here we report the 2.6 A resolution crystal structure of human P2Y12R in complex with a non-nucleotide reversible antagonist, AZD1283. The structure reveals a distinct straight conformation of helix V, which sets P2Y12R apart from all other known class A GPCR structures. With AZD1283 bound, the highly conserved disulphide bridge in GPCRs between helix III and extracellular loop 2 is not observed and appears to be dynamic. Along with the details of the AZD1283-binding site, analysis of the extracellular interface reveals an adjacent ligand-binding region and suggests that both pockets could be required for dinucleotide binding. The structure provides essential insights for the development of improved P2Y12R ligands and allosteric modulators as drug candidates.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174307/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174307/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Kaihua -- Zhang, Jin -- Gao, Zhan-Guo -- Zhang, Dandan -- Zhu, Lan -- Han, Gye Won -- Moss, Steven M -- Paoletta, Silvia -- Kiselev, Evgeny -- Lu, Weizhen -- Fenalti, Gustavo -- Zhang, Wenru -- Muller, Christa E -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Jacobson, Kenneth A -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Wu, Beili -- Zhao, Qiang -- R01 AI100604/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Z99 DK999999/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA DK031116-26/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA DK031126-07/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 1;509(7498):115-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13083. Epub 2014 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China [2]. ; Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; PharmaCenter Bonn, Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, An der Immenburg 4, D-53121 Bonn, Germany. ; Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China. ; 1] Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 99 Haike Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670650" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disulfides/metabolism ; Fibrinolytic Agents/*chemistry ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Docking Simulation ; Niacin/*analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12/*chemistry/metabolism ; Sulfonamides/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-07-18
    Description: The surface of the cornea consists of a unique type of non-keratinized epithelial cells arranged in an orderly fashion, and this is essential for vision by maintaining transparency for light transmission. Cornea epithelial cells (CECs) undergo continuous renewal from limbal stem or progenitor cells (LSCs), and deficiency in LSCs or corneal epithelium--which turns cornea into a non-transparent, keratinized skin-like epithelium--causes corneal surface disease that leads to blindness in millions of people worldwide. How LSCs are maintained and differentiated into corneal epithelium in healthy individuals and which key molecular events are defective in patients have been largely unknown. Here we report establishment of an in vitro feeder-cell-free LSC expansion and three-dimensional corneal differentiation protocol in which we found that the transcription factors p63 (tumour protein 63) and PAX6 (paired box protein PAX6) act together to specify LSCs, and WNT7A controls corneal epithelium differentiation through PAX6. Loss of WNT7A or PAX6 induces LSCs into skin-like epithelium, a critical defect tightly linked to common human corneal diseases. Notably, transduction of PAX6 in skin epithelial stem cells is sufficient to convert them to LSC-like cells, and upon transplantation onto eyes in a rabbit corneal injury model, these reprogrammed cells are able to replenish CECs and repair damaged corneal surface. These findings suggest a central role of the WNT7A-PAX6 axis in corneal epithelial cell fate determination, and point to a new strategy for treating corneal surface diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4610745/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4610745/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ouyang, Hong -- Xue, Yuanchao -- Lin, Ying -- Zhang, Xiaohui -- Xi, Lei -- Patel, Sherrina -- Cai, Huimin -- Luo, Jing -- Zhang, Meixia -- Zhang, Ming -- Yang, Yang -- Li, Gen -- Li, Hairi -- Jiang, Wei -- Yeh, Emily -- Lin, Jonathan -- Pei, Michelle -- Zhu, Jin -- Cao, Guiqun -- Zhang, Liangfang -- Yu, Benjamin -- Chen, Shaochen -- Fu, Xiang-Dong -- Liu, Yizhi -- Zhang, Kang -- GM049369/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY020846/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021374/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 17;511(7509):358-61. doi: 10.1038/nature13465. Epub 2014 Jul 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [2] Department of Ophthalmology, and Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Center of Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology, and Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Center of Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing 100730, China (X.Z.); Department of Ophthalmology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China (Y.Y.). ; Department of Ophthalmology, and Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Center of Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan 610041, China [2] Guangzhou KangRui Biological Pharmaceutical Technology Company Ltd., Guangzhou 510005, China. ; Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan 610041, China. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology, and Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Center of Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Nanoengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; 1] Department of Ophthalmology, and Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Center of Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [2] Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [3] Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; 1] State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China [2] Department of Ophthalmology, and Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Center of Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [3] Molecular Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan 610041, China [4] Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA [5] Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25030175" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Lineage ; Corneal Diseases/*metabolism/*pathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelium, Corneal/*cytology/*metabolism/pathology ; Eye Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Homeostasis ; Humans ; Limbus Corneae/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Paired Box Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Rabbits ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Skin/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Stem Cell Transplantation ; Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism ; Wnt Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Development of functional nanoparticles can be encumbered by unanticipated material properties and biological events, which can affect nanoparticle effectiveness in complex, physiologically relevant systems. Despite the advances in bottom-up nanoengineering and surface chemistry, reductionist functionalization approaches remain inadequate in replicating the complex interfaces present in nature and cannot avoid exposure of foreign materials. Here we report on the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles enclosed in the plasma membrane of human platelets, which are a unique population of cellular fragments that adhere to a variety of disease-relevant substrates. The resulting nanoparticles possess a right-side-out unilamellar membrane coating functionalized with immunomodulatory and adhesion antigens associated with platelets. Compared to uncoated particles, the platelet membrane-cloaked nanoparticles have reduced cellular uptake by macrophage-like cells and lack particle-induced complement activation in autologous human plasma. The cloaked nanoparticles also display platelet-mimicking properties such as selective adhesion to damaged human and rodent vasculatures as well as enhanced binding to platelet-adhering pathogens. In an experimental rat model of coronary restenosis and a mouse model of systemic bacterial infection, docetaxel and vancomycin, respectively, show enhanced therapeutic efficacy when delivered by the platelet-mimetic nanoparticles. The multifaceted biointerfacing enabled by the platelet membrane cloaking method provides a new approach in developing functional nanoparticles for disease-targeted delivery.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Che-Ming J -- Fang, Ronnie H -- Wang, Kuei-Chun -- Luk, Brian T -- Thamphiwatana, Soracha -- Dehaini, Diana -- Nguyen, Phu -- Angsantikul, Pavimol -- Wen, Cindy H -- Kroll, Ashley V -- Carpenter, Cody -- Ramesh, Manikantan -- Qu, Vivian -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Zhu, Jie -- Shi, William -- Hofman, Florence M -- Chen, Thomas C -- Gao, Weiwei -- Zhang, Kang -- Chien, Shu -- Zhang, Liangfang -- R01DK095168/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01EY25090/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL108735/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R25CA153915/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):118-21. doi: 10.1038/nature15373. Epub 2015 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92093, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics ; Blood Platelets/*cytology ; Blood Vessels/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; Collagen/chemistry/immunology ; Complement Activation/immunology ; Coronary Restenosis/blood/drug therapy/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods ; Humans ; Macrophages/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Nanoparticles/*administration & dosage/*chemistry ; *Platelet Adhesiveness ; Polymers/chemistry ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Staphylococcal Infections/blood/drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology ; Staphylococcus aureus/cytology/metabolism ; Taxoids/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics ; Unilamellar Liposomes/chemistry ; Vancomycin/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-03-31
    Description: In response to adenosine 5'-diphosphate, the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation, and thus serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Here we report the crystal structures of the human P2Y1R in complex with a nucleotide antagonist MRS2500 at 2.7 A resolution, and with a non-nucleotide antagonist BPTU at 2.2 A resolution. The structures reveal two distinct ligand-binding sites, providing atomic details of P2Y1R's unique ligand-binding modes. MRS2500 recognizes a binding site within the seven transmembrane bundle of P2Y1R, which is different in shape and location from the nucleotide binding site in the previously determined structure of P2Y12R, representative of another P2YR subfamily. BPTU binds to an allosteric pocket on the external receptor interface with the lipid bilayer, making it the first structurally characterized selective G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand located entirely outside of the helical bundle. These high-resolution insights into P2Y1R should enable discovery of new orthosteric and allosteric antithrombotic drugs with reduced adverse effects.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408927/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408927/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Dandan -- Gao, Zhan-Guo -- Zhang, Kaihua -- Kiselev, Evgeny -- Crane, Steven -- Wang, Jiang -- Paoletta, Silvia -- Yi, Cuiying -- Ma, Limin -- Zhang, Wenru -- Han, Gye Won -- Liu, Hong -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Jacobson, Kenneth A -- Zhao, Qiang -- Wu, Beili -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Z01 DK031116-21/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Z01DK031116-26/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ZIA DK031116-26/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):317-21. doi: 10.1038/nature14287. Epub 2015 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Bridge Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Bridge Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. ; Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China. ; 1] Bridge Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [2] Bridge Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA [3] iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, 99 Haike Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201203, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822790" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Diphosphate/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Deoxyadenine Nucleotides/*chemistry/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Conformation ; Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Thionucleotides/chemistry/metabolism ; Uracil/*analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-11-19
    Description: The utility of ferroelectric materials stems from the ability to nucleate and move polarized domains using an electric field. To understand the mechanisms of polarization switching, structural characterization at the nanoscale is required. We used aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to follow the kinetics and dynamics of ferroelectric switching at millisecond temporal and subangstrom spatial resolution in an epitaxial bilayer of an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric (BiFeO(3)) on a ferromagnetic electrode (La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3)). We observed localized nucleation events at the electrode interface, domain wall pinning on point defects, and the formation of ferroelectric domains localized to the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic interface. These results show how defects and interfaces impede full ferroelectric switching of a thin film.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Christopher T -- Gao, Peng -- Jokisaari, Jacob R -- Heikes, Colin -- Adamo, Carolina -- Melville, Alexander -- Baek, Seung-Hyub -- Folkman, Chad M -- Winchester, Benjamin -- Gu, Yijia -- Liu, Yuanming -- Zhang, Kui -- Wang, Enge -- Li, Jiangyu -- Chen, Long-Qing -- Eom, Chang-Beom -- Schlom, Darrell G -- Pan, Xiaoqing -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 18;334(6058):968-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1206980.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22096196" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-02-25
    Description: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal human premature ageing disease, characterized by premature arteriosclerosis and degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). HGPS is caused by a single point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene, resulting in the generation of progerin, a truncated splicing mutant of lamin A. Accumulation of progerin leads to various ageing-associated nuclear defects including disorganization of nuclear lamina and loss of heterochromatin. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts obtained from patients with HGPS. HGPS-iPSCs show absence of progerin, and more importantly, lack the nuclear envelope and epigenetic alterations normally associated with premature ageing. Upon differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs, progerin and its ageing-associated phenotypic consequences are restored. Specifically, directed differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs to SMCs leads to the appearance of premature senescence phenotypes associated with vascular ageing. Additionally, our studies identify DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNAPKcs, also known as PRKDC) as a downstream target of progerin. The absence of nuclear DNAPK holoenzyme correlates with premature as well as physiological ageing. Because progerin also accumulates during physiological ageing, our results provide an in vitro iPSC-based model to study the pathogenesis of human premature and physiological vascular ageing.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088088/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088088/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Guang-Hui -- Barkho, Basam Z -- Ruiz, Sergio -- Diep, Dinh -- Qu, Jing -- Yang, Sheng-Lian -- Panopoulos, Athanasia D -- Suzuki, Keiichiro -- Kurian, Leo -- Walsh, Christopher -- Thompson, James -- Boue, Stephanie -- Fung, Ho Lim -- Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio -- Zhang, Kun -- Yates, John 3rd -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA025779/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA025779-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01-DA025779/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009370/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009370-25A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Apr 14;472(7342):221-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09879. Epub 2011 Feb 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346760" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/metabolism/pathology/physiology ; Aging, Premature/genetics/pathology/physiopathology ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis ; Cell Aging ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cellular Reprogramming ; DNA-Activated Protein Kinase/metabolism ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Fibroblasts/pathology ; Holoenzymes/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology ; Lamin Type A ; Microfilament Proteins/analysis ; Models, Biological ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology ; Nuclear Envelope/pathology ; Nuclear Proteins/analysis/genetics/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Progeria/genetics/pathology/physiopathology ; Protein Precursors/analysis/genetics/metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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