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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The structures of bacterial communities were studied in activated sludge samples obtained from the aerobic and anaerobic zones of a wastewater treatment plant showing enhanced phosphorous removal. Samples were analyzed by in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes complementary to selected regions of the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) characteristic for defined phylogenetic entities (genera and larger groups). The microbial community structures revealed by molecular techniques were compared with the compositions of culturable bacterial communities, obtained from the characterization of 255 isolates from tryptone-soy (TS) agar and R2A agar. These isolates were characterized by 89 physiological tests and their cellular fatty acid patterns, and identified. Culture-dependent techniques indicated the following distribution: different Aeromonas spp. (2.7–8.3% on R2A agar; 45.0–63.7% on TS agar), Acinetobacter spp. (5.4–9.0% on R2A agar; 5.0–9.1% on TS agar), Pseudomonas spp. (up to 10% on R2A agar) and Shewanella putrefaciens (up to 3.0% on R2A agar), all members of the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria, were isolated most frequently. The relatively rare isolates of the beta subclass were identified as Acidovorax spp., Alcaligenes spp., and Comamonas spp.. The Gram-positive bacteria (high DNA G+C) were assigned mainly to Arthrobacter spp., Microbacterium spp., and Mycobacterium phlei. In order to assess the in situ abundance of the most frequently isolated genus, Aeromonas, two rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed. The two gamma proteobacterial genera Aeromonas and Acinetobacter constituted less than 5% of all bacteria. In situ, Proteobacteria belonging to the beta subclass and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria were dominant. From filamentous bacteria, Sphaerotilus spp. and Leptothrix spp. could be detected occasionally. In addition, one sample contained a high proportion of the morphologically distinct filaments of Microthrix parvicella.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Keywords: GENES ; RNA ; ARTHRITIS ; INFECTION ; MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT ; STRAINS ; MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ; RAT BITE FEVER ; TURKEYS
    Abstract: A pleomorphic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium (strain 131000547(T)) was isolated from the lungs of a cat with pneumonia. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses the strain was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus with 97.6% sequence similarity to the type strain of Streptobacillus moniliformis and 94.6% to that of Streptobacillus hongkongensis. The clear differentiation of strain 131000547(T) from Streptobacillus moniliformis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis was also supported by gyrB, groEL, and recA nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis. DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated 〈= 19.9% (reciprocal 28.7%) DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 131000547(T) and Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112(T). Physiological data confirmed the allocation of strain 131000547(T) to the family Leptotrichiaceae. Strain 131000547(T) has a unique profile of enzyme activities allowing differentiation from the most closely related species. Within the genus Streptobacillus, isolate 131000547(T) could also unambiguously be separated from Streptobacillus moniliformis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis by both matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. On the basis of these data, a novel species of the genus Streptobacillus, Streptobacillus felis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain 131000547(T) (=DSM 29248(T)=CCUG 66203(T)=CCM 8542(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Streptobacillus and of Streptobacillus moniliformis are also given.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25858245
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  • 3
    Abstract: An indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain OGS16T, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (Rattus rattus) in 2007 in Japan. It stained Gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain OGS16T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus felis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain OGS16T could also be differentiated clearly from other species of the genus Streptobacillus by rpoB, groEL and recA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis. DNA-DNA relatedness as obtained by average nucleotide identity was 89.10 % between strain OGS16T and Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112T. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data for strain OGS16T were congruent with results for other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in discriminating strain OGS16T unequivocally from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus ratti sp. nov., with the type strain OGS16T ( = JCM 31098T = DSM 101843T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 25.9 mol% and the genome size is 1.50 Mbp.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26705259
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were enriched and isolated from three oil storage caverns of the German national oil reserve at different distances from the oil/brine interface. Microscopically no bacteria were found in the original samples, but colony counts showed more than 100 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml in two samples, whereas 0 to 4 cfu/ml were found in the other samples. Enrichments using defined mineral salts medium or complex medium revealed culturable organisms in all samples. All colony types were isolated and further separation of organisms during isolation was completed microscopically. Enrichments in media containing complex organic compounds led to higher numbers of isolates in samples near the oil/brine interface than enrichments with oil as the sole source of carbon. Micro-organisms that could utilize oil as the sole source of carbon were isolated from all enrichment cultures. Identification of the isolates revealedBacillus strains in all samples and coryneform bacteria in the samples from cavern 123.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were enriched and isolated from three oil storage caverns of the German national oil reserve at different distances from the oil/brine interface. Microscopically no bacteria were found in the original samples, but colony counts showed more than 100 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml in two samples, whereas 0 to 4 cfu/ml were found in the other samples. Enrichments using defined mineral salts medium or complex medium revealed culturable organisms in all samples. All colony types were isolated and further separation of organisms during isolation was completed microscopically. Enrichments in media containing complex organic compounds led to higher numbers of isolates in samples near the oil/brine interface than enrichments with oil as the sole source of carbon. Micro-organisms that could utilize oil as the sole source of carbon were isolated from all enrichment cultures. Identification of the isolates revealed Bacillus strains in all samples and coryneform bacteria in the samples from cavern 123.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Twelve bacterial isolates, four of them assigned to the genus Acinetobacter, were taken from sewage of a treatment plant with Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) and screened for phosphorus uptake, polyphosphate (polyP) accumulation and adsorption under limited carbon and nitrogen conditions. In addition, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production was studied under carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen limitation. Under C limitation, the uptake of phosphorus was highest, ranging up to 66 mg P per g dry weight (dw) for the Acinetobacter isolates, whereas the highest amount of polyP was detected under limited N conditions (up to 25 mg PolyP / g dw). Extra-cellular polyP was detected, however to a minor extent, accounting for a maximum of 10% of the total polyP in one Acinetobacter isolate. The highest PHA concentration (given as 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3 HB) with 211 mg 3 HB / g dry weight (21% of the dried cell mass) was found for A. johnsonii 120 under nitrogen limitation, but also under P and O2 limitation, PHA, mainly poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and poly-β-hydroxyvalerate, were produced. Three isolates, assigned to the genus Pseudomonas, showed even higher values (345-427 mg 3 HB / g dw) under N limitation. Studies with Acinetobacter johnsonii 120 in continuous culture, simulating the aerobic/anaerobic periods of a waste-water treatment plant, resulted in a P elimination of 36% at an anaerobic contact time of 0.6 h. This value increased to 51% at an anaerobic contact time of 3.1 h. No release of phosphate and no uptake of acetate could be detected during the anaerobic period. In addition, Acinetobacter johnsonii 120 was not able to synthesize PHA under anaerobic conditions. By changing the anaerobic conditions to aerobic, a continuous decrease of the polyP content relative to the totalP content from 45% (day 1 of the aerobic process) to 19% (day 17 of the aerobic process) was observed. The amount of PHA increased to 50.4 mg 3 HB/g dw under aerobic conditions. The results indicate again that the EPBR process cannot be defined by simply applying the knowledge of the metabolic processes, observed or assumed in Acinetobacter pure cultures, to the complexity of the process in sewage treatment plants.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Different samples from a reactor system for the cleaning of an emulsified waste oil containing approximately 1% of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were studied for the diversity of phenanthrene, anthracene, and acenaphthene-metabolizing bacteria. From more than 28 different taxa found in the airlift-suspension reactor, nine were able to mineralize at least one of the PAH, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Sphingomonas, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, and the Flavobacterium/Cytophaga group. In the sludge from the thickener of the reactor system, a reduced number of metabolically active groups could be detected. The impact of different precultivation substrates on the degradation capability was investigated with five PAH-degrading bacterial strains. Four isolates were influenced by the precultivation substrates, however, one isolate (Alcaligenes-like) as well as the mixture of the five strains showed no changes in their degradation capability. The results indicated a strong impact of the precultivation methods on the composition of bacterial communities and the activity and the degradation characteristics of bacteria with respect to different PAH.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); gene probes; activated sludge; floc structure; alpha-4 Proteobacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The increasing significance of members of the genus Sphingomonas in biotechnological applications has led to an increased interest in the diversity, abundance and ecophysiological potential of this group of Gram-negative bacteria. This general focus provides a challenge to improve means for identification of sphingomonads; eg molecular genetic methods for rapid and specific detection could facilitate screening of new isolates. Here, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes targeted against 16S rRNA were used to typify strains previously assigned to the genus. All 46 sphingomonads tested including type strains of 21 Sphingomonasspecies could be detected with a probe originally designed for the genus and all but one with a probe designed for the alpha-4 subgroup of the Proteobacteria. The two probes are suitable for direct detection of sphingomonads in pure and mixed cultures as well as in environmental samples of unknown composition. The probes were used to identify sphingomonads in situ in activated sludge samples. Sphingomonads were rather abundant accounting for about 5–10% of the total cells in municipal sludges. Distinct patterns in aggregation of the cells suggest that these organisms could be involved in the formation process of sludge flocs.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: Sphingomonas; chemotaxonomy; ubiquinone system; polyamine patterns; polar lipid profiles; fatty acid composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Based on published results and investigations done for this study, chemotaxonomic characteristics of all validly described species of the genus Sphingomonas, as well as unnamed strains of this genus and related genera such as Rhizomonas and Blastomonas, are presented. All representatives of this group, here designated as sphingomonads, contain ubiquinone (Q-10). The two different polyamine patterns characterized either by the predominant polyamine sym-homospermidine or spermidine separate the sphingomonads into two major groups. Complex polar lipid profiles were found in sphingomonads in addition to the characteristic compound sphingoglycolipid. Identical profiles were found only in a few phylogenetically highly related species. Common to all sphingomonads is a fatty acid composition with 2-hydroxy fatty acids (14:0 2OH in all currently recognized species) and the lack of 3-hydroxy acids, which distinguishes them from taxa outside this group. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the fatty acid compositions, in several cases, were also suitable for identification at the species level. Thus, the differences in the chemotaxonomic characteristics demonstrate that the analyses of these low molecular weight cell compounds are suitable for classification of sphingomonads.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The structures of bacterial communities were studied in activated sludge samples obtained from the aerobic and anaerobic zones of a wastewater treatment plant showing enhanced phosphorous removal. Samples were analyzed by in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes complementary to selected regions of the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) characteristic for defined phylogenetic entities (genera and larger groups). The microbial community structures revealed by molecular techniques were compared with the compositions of culturable bacterial communities, obtained from the characterization of 255 isolates from tryptone-soy (TS) agar and R2A agar. These isolates were characterized by 89 physiological tests and their cellular fatty acid patterns, and identified. Culture-dependent techniques indicated the following distribution: different Aeromonas spp. (2.7–8.3% on R2A agar; 45.0–63.7% on TS agar), Acinetobacter spp. (5.4–9.0% on R2A agar; 5.0–9.1% on TS agar), Pseudomonas spp. (up to 10% on R2A agar) and Shewanella putrefaciens (up to 3.0% on R2A agar), all members of the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria, were isolated most frequently. The relatively rare isolates of the beta subclass were identified as Acidovorax spp., Alcaligenes spp., and Comamonas spp., The Gram-positive bacteria (high DNA G+C) were assigned mainly to Arthrobacter spp., Microbacterium spp., and Mycobacterium phlei. In order to assess the in situ abundance of the most frequently isolated genus, Aeromonas, two rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed. The two gamma proteobacterial genera Aeromonas and Acinetobacter constituted less than 5% of all bacteria. In situ, Proteobacteria belonging to the beta subclass and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria were dominant. From filamentous bacteria, Sphaerotilus spp. and Leptothrix spp. could be detected occasionally. In addition, one sample contained a high proportion of the morphologically distinct filaments of Microthrix parvicella. As for the genus Acinetobacter, the relative abundance of the most frequently gamma-proteobacterial genus Aeromonas was overestimated by the intrinsic selectivity of cultivation. Cultivation on nutrient-rich medium (TS-agar) especially supported an enhanced isolation of bacteria belonging to these two genera.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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