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  • 1
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Circadian cycle ; Cyclic AMP ; Pineal gland ; VIP
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: C57BL/KsJ db/db mice ; genetic analysis ; proinsulin mRNA ; polygenic control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Expression of obesity-induced diabetes associated with the diabetes or db mutation in mice varies in inbred strains. This study utilized a genetic analysis to evaluate the number of genes responsible for the difference in diabetes responses between mice of the susceptible C57BL/KsJ (BL/Ks) and resistant 129/J inbred strains. BL/Ks (db/+) males and 129/J (+/+) females were bred to generate F1 hybrids, and the F1 females (db/+ and +/+, distinguished by progeny testing) were backcrossed to BL/Ks (db/+) males. A total of 252 backcrossed males were obtained, of which 31 were db/db and obese. While the plasma glucose of all the fed back-crossed mice was greater than 22 mmol/l, the expression of diabetes varied considerably, as measured by fasting plasma glucose, fed plasma insulin, and pancreatic insulin and proinsulin mRNA content. That proinsulin mRNA content was a good indicator of diabetes severity and islet dysfunction was seen in the inverse correlation between proinsulin mRNA content and fasting plasma glucose (r=0.69, p〈0.001), and a direct correlation between proinsulin mRNA and plasma insulin (r=0.86, p〈0.001), and pancreatic insulin content (r=0.61, p〈0.01). If a single gene were responsible for severe islet dysfunction, one-half of the backcrossed mice would develop low proinsulin mRNA levels like the BL/Ks parent, and one-half would be resistant to islet destruction. Statistical evaluation (SKUMIX) of the distribution of these parameters in backcrossed mice rejected with a high degree of probability a bimodal distribution. Thus, it was concluded that while a dominant gene (or genes) is responsible for diabetic (〉22 mmol/l) unfasted plasma glucose in all backcrossed mice, allelic differences at two or more genetic loci are responsible for the differences between the two strains in diabetes severity measured by fasting plasma glucose, pancreatic insulin, and proinsulin mRNA content.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; genetics ; GLUT1 ; single-strand conformation polymorphism ; mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To evaluate the role of mutations in the glucose transporter (GLUT1) gene in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we first conducted a population association study using the XbaI polymorphism of the gene. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed and used for the analysis. When analysed in 91 diabetic patients and 87 non-diabetic control subjects, the distribution of the genotype frequency was significantly different between the two groups (p=0.0025). The (−) allele was significantly associated with NIDDM (odds ratio 2.317, 95% confidence interval 1.425−3.768). To identify possible mutation(s) in the GLUT1 gene, which was in linkage disequilibrium with the (−) allele, all ten exons of the gene were analysed by PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in 53 diabetic patients with at least one (−) allele. Variant SSCP patterns were detected in exons 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10. Sequence analysis revealed that all the variants represented silent mutations. One of the variants in exon 2, GCT (Ala15)→GCC(Ala), created a HaeIII restriction site. This polymorphism was common in Japanese subjects with heterozygosity of 0.36 and polymorphism information content 0.29. We conclude that the structural mutation of GLUT1 is rare and not likely to be a major genetic determinant of NIDDM in Japanese subjects. The Xbal (−) allele of the GLUT1 gene appeared to be a genetic marker of NIDDM in Japanese subjects. The possibility of the presence of mutation(s) in the regulatory region of the gene or in another locus nearby could not be excluded.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; genetics ; GLUT1 ; single-strand conformation polymorphism ; mutation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To evaluate the role of mutations in the glucose transporter (GLUT1) gene in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we first conducted a population association study using the XbaI polymorphism of the gene. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed and used for the analysis. When analysed in 91 diabetic patients and 87 non-diabetic control subjects, the distribution of the genotype frequency was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.0025). The (−) allele was significantly associated with NIDDM (odds ratio 2.317, 95 % confidence interval 1.425–3.768). To identify possible mutation(s) in the GLUT1 gene, which was in linkage disequilibrium with the (−) allele, all ten exons of the gene were analysed by PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in 53 diabetic patients with at least one (−) allele. Variant SSCP patterns were detected in exons 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10. Sequence analysis revealed that all the variants represented silent mutations. One of the variants in exon 2, GCT (Ala15) → GCC(Ala), created a HaeIII restriction site. This polymorphism was common in Japanese subjects with heterozygosity of 0.36 and polymorphism information content 0.29. We conclude that the structural mutation of GLUT1 is rare and not likely to be a major genetic determinant of NIDDM in Japanese subjects. The XbaI (−) allele of the GLUT1 gene appeared to be a genetic marker of NIDDM in Japanese subjects. The possibility of the presence of mutation(s) in the regulatory region of the gene or in another locus nearby could not be excluded. [Diabetologia (1995) 38: 942–947]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Smooth muscle cell ; collagen ; aminoguanidine ; glycation ; atherosclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary While non-enzymatic glycation of long-lived tissue proteins such as collagen has been implicated in chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, its role in the aetiology of diabetic macroangiopathy has not been elucidated. To test the hypothesis that glycation of collagen abolishes the inhibitory effect of native collagen on the proliferation of human smooth muscle cells, we obtained smooth muscle cells from human gastric arteries and cultured them on dishes coated with glycated or non-glycated collagen. The proliferation of human smooth muscle cells in the presence of 10 % fetal calf serum or platelet derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/ml) was inhibited by type 1 collagen coated on the dishes. Glycation of collagen with glucose 6-phosphate for 7 days abolished the growth-inhibitory effect of native collagen. Succinylation of collagen, which like glycation blocked the lysyl residues in collagen, also abolished the growth-inhibitory effect. Adhesion of human smooth muscle cells to collagen-coated dishes was not affected by glycation of collagen. Addition of glycated albumin to the medium did not affect the growth of human smooth muscle cells on plastic dishes. The inhibition of human smooth muscle cell proliferation by collagen was not reversed by the glycation of collagen in the presence of aminoguanidine. Results suggest that early glycation abolishes the inhibitory effect of collagen on human smooth muscle cell proliferation and may thus participate in the progression of macroangiopathy in diabetes. [Diabetologia (1996) 39: 800–806]
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Streptozotocin ; diabetes-susceptibility ; genetic analysis ; inbred mouse strains ; H-2 locus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To assess genetic factors determining sensitivity to streptozotocin-induced diabetes in inbred strains of mice, a genetic analysis of streptozotocin-sensitive C57BL/6J and streptozotocin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice was performed. One week after a single dose of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg body weight), differences in plasma glucose concentration were marked between male mice of the C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains (p〈0.001). To determine the number of genes responsible for the difference, F1 male progeny of a cross between parental strains were produced, and found to be streptozotocin resistant like C3H/HeJ parents. F1 mice were, therefore, backcrossed with streptozotocin-sensitive C57BL/6J mice (Backcross: F1♂ ♂ X C57BL/6J ♀ ♀). The plasma glucoses of backcrossed male mice (n=41) following streptozotocin treatment appeared to segregate into two populations, half like the C57BL/6J parent, and half like the F1 parent. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the data fit a model with two distributions better than one with a single distribution, suggesting a single major gene responsible for the difference in streptozotocin susceptibility. This hypothesis was also supported by the observation that streptozotocin sensitivity in 12 recombinant inbred strains of C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice appeared to segregate into two classes. Resistance to streptozotocin induced diabetes in F1 mice suggested that the expression of this gene is recessive, although X-chromosome linked inheritance could not be excluded. Efforts to map the streptozotocin-sensitivity gene revealed lack of right linkage to several loci including the H-2 locus. If inherited differences in the ability to resist a B-cell toxin play a role in genetic susceptibility to diabetes in man, then mapping the streptozotocin-susceptibility gene in mice may provide a means to evaluate the role of a putative homologous locus in the aetiology of diabetes in man.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Keywords: fructose 2,6-bisphosphate ; fructose 6-phosphate ; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0011-2240
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Regulatory Peptides 10 (1985), S. S34 
    ISSN: 0167-0115
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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