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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Ammon's horn ; Hippocampus ; Septum ; Dentate gyrus ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Direct projections from Ammon's horn to the septum were studied in the cat by the anterograde tracing method after injecting WGA-HRP (wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate) into Ammon's horn. The results were further confirmed by the retrograde WGA-HRP method after injecting WGA-HRP into the septum. Pyramidal neurons in fields CA1, CA2 and CA3 were observed to send their axons ipsilaterally to the lateral septal nucleus; the septal parts of the hippocampus sent projection fibers to the dorsomedial portions of the lateral septal nucleus via the medial aspects of the subcallosal fornix, while the hippocampal regions successively more proximal to the temporal pole sent projection fibers to progressively more ventrolateral portions of the lateral septal nucleus via more lateral aspects of the subcallosal fornix. It was also found that the septal parts of fields CA1, CA2 and CA3 sent projection fibers bilaterally to the dorsomedial aspects of the lateral septal nucleus. Field CA4 appeared to send projection fibers only sparsely, if at all, to the medial septal nucleus. The rudimentary parts of the hippocampal formation, taenia tecta and indusium griseum, were found to have reciprocal ipsilateral connections with the dorsal portions of the lateral septal nucleus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Age-related changes ; Basal dendrites ; Pyramidal cells ; Motor cortex ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Age-related changes of pyramidal cell basal dendrites in layers III and V of human motor cortex (area 4) were analyzed quantitatively in Golgiimpregnated sections by Sholl's method of concentric cireles (Sholl 1953). The present data suggested that basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells were decreased in number with advancing age, and that the decrease was more prominent in basal dendrites of layer V pyramidal cells than in those of layer III pyramidal cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Monoamine oxidase-B ; Astrocyte ; Senile plaques ; Dementia of Alzheimer type
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoamine oxidase (MAO) histochemistry has been performed in brains from patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and aged controls. Conspicuous MAO-positive cell clusters were frequently observed in the amygdala, hippocampus, and insular cortex in the brains of DAT. Double staining with glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry revealed that the clusterforming MAO-positive cells were astrocytes. Using Bielschowsky's method, Congo red and thioflavin S counterstaining, this astrocytic mass was shown to be associated with senile plaques. By the enzyme inhibition experiment, MAO activity in senile plaques was revealed to be of type B. The present results clearly indicate that MAO-B activity is expressed in fibrillary astrocytes in or around senile plaques, suggesting that these astrocytes metabolize exogenous amines in senile plaques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Astrocytes ; Motor cortex ; Glial fibrillary acidic protein ; S-100 protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Morphological changes in astrocytes have been studied in the primary motor cortex of persons dying with or without amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein were used as immunohistochemical markers for reactive astroglia. In 12 brains of individuals without neurological disease glial cells showing moderate immunoreactivity for both GFAP and S-100 protein were uniformly distributed in the primary motor cortex in the upper regions of layer I and layer II. In 8 of 11 ALS cases, intensely immunoreactive cells were additionally found to occur and were scattered irregularly, mostly in layers II and III, but occasionally in layers IV and V. Clusters of these intensely positive cells occurred in patches about 200–400 μm in diameter, each containing about 6 to 〉20 such cells. GFAP-positive astrocytes were seen in some of the 36 brains from persons with neurological problems other than ALS but the pattern was different. The abnormal appearance of clusters of positive astrocytes of the primary motor cortex may be intimately associated with the ALS disease process.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Aging ; PAS-positive granular structures ; Learning disturbance ; Senescence accelerated mouse (SAM)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Abnormal granular structures, which stained positively with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS-positive granular structures; PGS), were observed in the brain of senescence accelerated mouse (SAM). They were small, round to ovoid, homogenous structures measuring up to 5 μm in diameter and usually grouped in clusters. PGS were localized in the hippocampus, piriform cortices, olfactory tubercle, nucleus of the trapezoid body, and cerebellar cortices. Quantitative analysis revealed that PGS remarkably increased in the hippocampus of SAM-P/8, a substrain of SAM, with advancing age, although a few PGS also appeared in the aged control mice, SAM-R/1 and DDD. Their histochemical nature, morphological features and distribution pattern were different from those of corpora amylacea and other similar bodies. A close anatomical relationship between PGS and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes was inferred from immunohistochemical studies. PGS is considered to be one of the morphological manifestations of senescence in mice brains, and are found to occur more numerously in the brains of learning or memory deficit mice, SAM-P/8.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: In vivo CNS demyelination ; Galactocerebroside ; Complement ; Antibody-dependent cell-mediated demyelination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The mechanism of antibody-mediated central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in vivo was studied using rabbit eyes. Injection of antigalactocerebroside (Gal C) antiserum alone into the normal rabbit vitreous body induced demyelination in the epiretinal myelinated fibers. This activity of the antiserum disappeared after heat treatment at 56°C for 30 min and was restored by supplement of normal fresh serum, suggesting the complement dependency of the activity. Heated anti-Gal C antiserum could induce demyelination, however, when macrophages were introduced by injecting lymphocyte supernatants together with antiserum. Electron microscopic study revealed penetration of macrophage process between the myelin lamella. These findings suggest that the cooperation of anti-Gal C antibody and macrophage can result in the antibody-dependent cell-mediated demyelination in the absence of complement. Because oligodendrocyte generally appeared normal, myelin, not oligodendrocyte is suspected to be the primary target by anti-Gal C antiserum. In contrast, neither anti-MBP nor anti-gangliosides antiserum had the in vivo-demyelinating activity. In CNS demyelination by anti-Gal C antibody, complement-mediated and macrophage-mediated mechanisms may cooperate in varing degrees.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Amino acid metabolism ; cerebral glioma ; brain tumour ; 11C-methionine ; PET
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fourteen patients with cerebral gliomas were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) using L-[methyl-11C]methionine (11C-MET). Positive images of tumour were obtained in all cases regardless of histological grades. The analysis of differential absorption ratio (DAR) showed the higher accumulation of11C-MET in high grade gliomas than in low grade gliomas. PET study with11C-MET will be of great value not only in delineating the location of gliomas, but also in making a qualitative diagnosis from the view point of the biological properties of gliomas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Motor neuron disease ; Betz cell ; Dendrite ; Golgi method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A morphological study using a modified Golgi impregnation technique was carried out on Betz cells in the motor area of eight patients with motor neuron disease (MND) and age-matched controls without abnormal neuropathological findings during routine examination. Betz cells were categorized as normal (type I), or those with moderate (type II) or marked (type III) degeneration of dendrites. Types II and III Betz cells tended to be dominant in the cases of MND, whereas type I Betz cells constituted the highest percentage in most of the control cases. The frequently observed morphological alterations of Betz cells in MND were accumulation of lipofuscin, degeneration or loss of dendrites, and reactive astrocytic gliosis around the Betz cell soma. It was suggested that Betz cell changes in MND are not only due to aging but also to evident pathological processes, since the above-mentioned findings were more extensive in the MND cases than in the control cases. Also, the socalled lower motor neuron disease belongs to one basic disease termed “motor neuron disease”, because the pathological changes of Betz cells were observed even in cases of spinal progressive muscular atrophy alone or associated with progressive bulbar palsy, which are devoid of pyramidal tract degeneration and signs of upper motor neuron lesion.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 57 (1981), S. 121-127 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Meningioma ; third ventricle ; computed tomography ; operative procedure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors report a rare case of a giant meningioma in the third ventricle operated on by the transcallosal approach following bifrontal craniotomy. The CT findings and the operative procedures are discussed.
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