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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Tetracycline absorption ; zinc sulphate ; zinc citrate ; complex formation ; man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The inhibitory effect of zinc on the gastrointestinal absorption of tetracycline has been investigated in 7 healthy volunteers. Zinc (45 mg Zn++) was given as a solution of zinc sulphate and as a zinc citrate complex; tetracycline (500 mg) was administered as a commercially available preparation. Serum tetracycline concentrations and the area under the serum tetracycline concentration-time curve (up to 6 h) were significantly reduced when tetracycline was taken with either zinc sulphate or the zinc citrate complex. Although the reduction of absorption seemed more pronounced after zinc sulphate, the difference between the inhibitory effects of the two forms of zinc was not significant. It is concluded that simultaneous administration of zinc and tetracycline may reduce absorption of tetracycline.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Metronidazole ; serum concentration ; bioavailability ; food intake ; healthy subjects ; Crohn's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possible influence of food intake on the bioavailability of metronidazole was examined in ten healthy volunteers by administration of a single dose of metronidazole on an empty stomach, and with a standardized breakfast. Food intake did not significantly alter the bioavailability of metronidazole. The interindividual variation in bioavailability appeared to be slight. In nine patients with Crohn's disease, the absorption of metronidazole appeared to be reduced and to be more variable than in healthy subjects. In both groups there was a clear relationship between the amount absorbed and dose/kg body weight. Thus, from the pharmacokinetic point of view, metronidazole can safely be given either with or between meals. The dose should be related to body weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract InMoraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis andMoraxella nonliquefaciens strains isolated from clinical specimens in the south of Sweden two variants of beta-lactamase were distinguished by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The BRO-1 (Ravasio type) enzyme was the most common inBranhamella catarrhalis, constituting about 90% of the beta-lactamase found in this species, while the BRO-2 enzyme (1908 type) was as common as BRO-1 inMoraxella nonliquefaciens. The determinants mediating the production of BRO-1 and BRO-2 were both transferable by conjugation. Cell-bound beta-lactamase from reference strains producing BRO-1 and BRO-2 could be solubilized by papain digestion. The isoelectric point of the solubilized enzymes differed distinctly between BRO-1 (pI 6.5) and BRO-2 (pI 6.9). The molecular species of BRO-1 and BRO-2 released by papain digestion were purified by affinity chromatography with phenylboronic acid agarose gel. They had identical molecular weights of approximately 28,000. Their kinetic constants were indistinguishable for a number of substrates and beta-lactamase inhibitors.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine the recovery rate of species of the genera Haemophilus and Moraxella (including subgenus Branhamella) from the upper respiratory tract and the incidence of β-lactamase production within these genera, cultures were made of nose and throat swab specimens and adenoid tissue in 50 children undergoing adenoidectomy.Haemophilus influenzae was isolated from 92% of the children. All children harboured strains of Haemophilus spp. and in 46%, at least one strain produced the TEM-1 β-lactamase.Branhamella catarrhalis and/or Moraxella nonliquefaciens were isolated from 82% of the children and strains producing the BRO-1 β-lactamase from 34%. Overall, TEM-1 and/or BRO-1 producing strains were recovered from 60% of the investigated patients. The β-lactamase production was found to be transferable by conjugation within the respective genera. It is suggested that the apathogenic species may be a source of transferable determinants mediating β-lactamase production in the upper respiratory tract.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four qualitative methods for the detection of β-lactamase production inStaphylococcus andMicrococcus species were evaluated and compared with a quantitative macroiodometric reference method. The disc diffusion test with penicillin G and the cloverleaf method could not separate β-lactamase-positive from β-lactamase-negative strains. Two applications of the chromogenic cephalosporin test, using uninduced strains and strains grown on blood agar plates, gave a large number of false negative and false positive results. False negative reactions were most common among uninduced strains, while the false positive reactions were most often recorded forStaphylococcus saprophyticus. A high degree of efficiency was recorded for the nitrocefin spot test, using induced strains grown on antibiotic susceptibility agar, and for the starch-iodine plate method. The starch-iodine plate with methicillin as inducer gave the most reliable results.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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