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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Inbreeding effective population size ; Truncation selection ; Weighting system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary It is well known that truncation selection is the most efficient form of directional selection in terms of changing gene frequency. In this paper we show circumstances where truncation selection followed by a balanced mating generates inbreeding effective population size smaller than that generated by a selection that assigns mating frequencies to individuals according to their breeding values, where both selection schemes give the same expected performance of selected individuals (selection differential). Breeding values of selected individuals and the weight used to determine mating frequencies are assumed to be linearly distributed on a performance scales, x. To assign mating frequencies to the individuals in the weighting system, the selected individuals are grouped using a constant δ, and ith group in the interval xi, xi + δ. With small number of groups, say 2 or 3, the weighting system in general generates inbreeding effective population size that is larger than that generated by a truncation selection. As the number of the groups increases, truncation selection generates larger effective numbers.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 81 (1991), S. 173-184 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Part-whole correlation ; Juvenile-mature correlation ; Jack pine ; Red pine ; Norway spruce
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Juvenile-mature correlation has played an important role in indirect selection for size traits in forest trees. The juvenile size of a tree is a part of the mature size, and the juvenile-mature correlation is an example of a “part-whole” type of correlation. As is the case with any other “part-whole” type of correlation, the juvenile-mature correlation can be subdivided into two components; one is a function of variance only, and the other a function of variance and covariance. In this paper the components of the juvenile-mature correlation is described, the basic properties and the dynamics of its components analyzed, and the role of these components in explaining the gain from indirect juvenile selection discussed. Six forest tree populations were used to review the various properties of the model. The most important applied conclusions were: (1) even if two populations have the same juvenile-mature correlations, different selection strategies can be used depending on the nature of correlation components. (2) Choosing the proper mature age is as important as choosing juvenile age. (3) Understanding the growth curves of mean and variance is essential to developing selection strategies
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether melatonin would prevent nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptotic death of PGT-β immortalized pineal cells. To examine the protective effect of melatonin, cytotoxicity assay, DNA fragmentation analysis, caspase-3 activity assay, and Western blotting for caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were performed. Treatment of cells with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, was shown to induce apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and pretreatment with melatonin (0.1 mm) attenuated the occurrence of NO-induced apoptotic cell death. DNA fragmentation in response to NO was also arrested by melatonin. Caspase-3 activity induced by NO was decreased with melatonin treatment. Furthermore, the active fragments of caspase-3 and PARP were almost completely absent following exposure to melatonin. To elucidate the protective mechanisms of action of melatonin, Western blot analyses for Bcl-2 expression and cytochrome c release were carried out. Pretreatment with melatonin (0.1 mm) induced the expression of Bcl-2 and suppressed the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, thereby arresting NO-induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that the antiapoptotic effect of melatonin is associated with induction of Bcl-2 expression in PGT-β cells, which in turn blocks caspase-3 activation and inhibits cytochrome c release into the cytosol.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Translation ; Initiation factor ; Chromosomal mapping ; Pulsed-field electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Translation initiation factor eIF-5A is an abundant protein in which a lysine residue is modified by spermidine to form the amino acid derivative, hypusine. The factor is encoded by two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, called TIF51A and TIF51B, which are regulated reciprocally by oxygen and by heme. TIF51B, also called ANBI, is located on chromosome X in a region called COR. We physically mapped TIF51A and its associated serine tRNA2 gene by the method of chromosome fragmentation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. TIF5IA maps 90 kb from the left end of chromosome V in a region called ARC. The COR and ARC regions contain CYCI and CYC7, respectively, and appear to be duplications carrying numerous related genes. The arrangements of related genes in the two regions are incompatible with a duplication mechanism involving a circular intermediate.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Degenerated PCR primers were used to amplify chitin synthase genes from genomic DNA of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Through cloning and sequencing of approximately 600-bp fragments amplified by PCR, we found three genes encoding different types of chitin synthases, designated MaCHS1, MaCHS2, and MaCHS3. Southern blot analysis performed on genomic DNA showed that each of the chitin synthases MaCHS1, MaCHS2, and MaCHS3 is encoded by a single copy gene. Alignment of their deduced amino acid sequences with those of other euascomycetes separated the sequences into three distinct classes. MaCHS1 was identified as a gene for class I chitin synthase, MaCHS2 for class II, and MaCHS3 for class III. The UPGMA dendrogram and phylogenetic tree of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed the taxonomic and evolutionary position of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A dense map of genetic variation in the laboratory mouse genome will provide insights into the evolutionary history of the species and lead to an improved understanding of the relationship between inter-strain genotypic and phenotypic differences. Here we resequence the genomes of four ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The pmrA gene, a yeast PMR1 homologue, was isolated from Aspergillus niger. Sequence analysis of the pmrA cDNA and the genomic DNA revealed that two introns exist in the coding region, and that an open reading frame in the cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1056 amino acids containing all the conserved regions present in P-type Ca2+-ATPases. The predicted pmrA protein exhibited a high degree of sequence similarity to the Pmr1 proteins from yeasts and mammalians (50–59% identity). The expression of the pmrA cDNA partially restored the growth defect of Yarrowia lipolytica pmr1 null mutant on EGTA-containing medium. This indicates that the A. niger pmrA gene encodes a functional homologue of the yeast P-type Ca2+-ATPase involved in the secretory pathway. An A. niger pmrA null mutant exhibited growth retardation on EGTA-containing medium and the growth defect was overcome by adding Ca2+ or Mn2+ into the medium. This suggests an involvement of the pmrA protein in Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis in A. niger.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The antifungal effectiveness against rose powdery mildew using antimicrobial nanosilvercolloidal solution was investigated. Double-capsulized nanosilver was prepared by chemicalreaction of silver ion with aid of physical method, reducing agent and stabilizers. The averagediameter of nanosilver was about 1.5 nm. They were highly stable and very well dispersive inaqueous solution. The Transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrometer were usedfor measurements of size analysis and their stability, respectively. The nanosilver colloidalsolution of concentration of 5000 ppm was diluted in 10 ppm of 500 kg and sprayed at largearea of 3306 m2polluted by rose powdery mildew. The white rose powdery mildew fade outabove 95 % after 2 days and was not recurred for a week. The antifungal effects were observedby an optical microscope and photographs
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; PMR1 ; Hansenula polymorpha ; Ca2+-ATPase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PMR1 has been cloned in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. The partial DNA fragment of the H. polymorpha homologue was initially obtained by a polymerase chain reaction and used to isolate the entire gene which encodes a protein of 918 amino acids. The putative gene product contains all ten of the conserved regions observed in P-type ATPases. The cloned gene product exhibits 60·3% amino acid identity to the S. cerevisiae PMR1 gene product and complemented the growth defect of a S. cerevisiae pmr1 null mutant in the EGTA-containing medium. The results demonstrate that the H. polymorpha gene encodes the functional homologue of the S. cerevisiae PMR1 gene product, a P-type Ca2+-ATPase. The DNA sequence of the H. polymorpha homologue has been submitted to GenBank with the Accession Number U92083. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: α1-antitrypsin ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Hansenula polymorpha ; Pichia pastoris ; glycosylation ; secretion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Human α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) is a major serine protease inhibitor in plasma, secreted as a glycoprotein with a complex type of carbohydrate at three asparagine residues. To study glycosylation of heterologous proteins in yeast, we investigated the glycosylation pattern of the human α1-AT secreted in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the methylotrophic yeasts, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris. The partial digestion of the recombinant α1-AT with endoglycosidase H and the expression in the mnn9 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae showed that the recombinant α1-AT secreted in S. cerevisiae was heterogeneous, consisting of molecules containing core carbohydrates on either two or all three asparagine residues. Besides the core carbohydrates, variable numbers of mannose outer chains were also added to some of the secreted α1-AT. The human α1-AT secreted in both methylotrophic yeasts was also heterogeneous and hypermannosylated as observed in S. cerevisiae, although the overall length of mannose outer chains of α1-AT in the methylotrophic yeasts appeared to be relatively shorter than those of α1-AT in S. cerevisiae. The α1-AT secreted from both methylotrophic yeasts retained its biological activity as an elastase inhibitor comparable to that of α1-AT from S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the different glycosylation profile does not affect the in vitro activity of the protein. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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