Key words DMF
Type of exposure
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the exposure and intake dose of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and the correlation between them, according to the type of exposure for the workers in the DMF industry. Methods: We monitored 345 workers occupationally exposed to DMF, from 15 workshops in the synthetic fiber, fiber coating, synthetic leather and paint manufacturing industries. Ambient monitoring was carried out with personal samplers to monitor the external exposure. Biological monitoring was done to determine the internal dose by analyzing N-methylformamide (NMF) in end-shift urine. Work procedure and exposure type of each DMF workshop was carefully surveyed, to classify workers by exposure type according to work details. Workers were classified into three groups (Group A: continuous and direct exposure through inhalation and skin; Group B: intermittent and short-term exposure through inhalation and skin; Group C: continuous and indirect exposure mostly through inhalation). Results: Geometric mean of DMF concentration in air was 2.62 (GSD 5.30) ppm and that of NMF in urine was 14.50 (GSD 3.89) mg/l. In the case of continuous absorption through inhalation and dermal exposure (Group A), the value of NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm of DMF was 45.3 mg/l (r=0.524, n=178), 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r=0.424), while it was 37.7 mg/l (r=0.788, n=37), 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r=0.743) in the case of absorption mostly through inhalation (Group C). Creatinine correction reduced the correlation between two parameters. Conclusion: The NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm DMF, of the dermal and inhalation exposure group was 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r=0.424, n=178), while that of the inhalation exposure-only group was 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r=0.743, n=37). Co-exposure with toluene reduced the NMF excretion in urine.
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