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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Insulin-dependent diabetes ; Islet cell antibodies ; Complement-fixing ICA ; C-peptide ; Geographical variation ; Seasonal variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Finland and Sweden have the highest incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes in children in the world, about 3–4 times that of countries in the Mediterranean area, with the exception of Sardinia. We have collected information from several European clinics and from Pittsburgh, USA, in order to find out whether this difference in incidence is associated with corresponding differences of the disease pattern. Patients in Finland or Sweden (‘North’) and Pittsburgh were younger (〈10 years old) at diagnosis compared with those in the other clinics in Europe (P〈0.05 versusP〈0.02). In the North, boys were in excess (58%) in contrast to France (40%) and Pittsburgh (46%). Patients in the North had a shorter duration of symptoms (〈8 days;P〈0.001) and higher blood glucose (〉20 mmol/l;P〈0.05) than those attending the other European clinics. Irrespective of age, there were more ICA-positive patients in the North (94%) than in Berlin-Vienna (67%;P〈0.01) or in France (70%;P〈0.01). There was a tendency for non-diabetic parents and siblings in the North to have lower C-peptide values (〈0.26 pmol/ml) at the time of diagnosis of the proband and to be ICA-positive more often than relatives in the other European clinics. The seasonal variation of diagnosis, showed no obvious geographical differences, with recorded diagnosis always lowest during the summer. We conclude that certain factors seem to cause not only a high incidence of diabetes in children in Finland and Sweden but perhaps also a more aggressive early disease process.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; HLA haplotypes ; HLA-DQ ; restriction fragment length polymorphism ; genetics ; disease susceptibility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In Caucasians the predisposition to Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has been shown to associate with HLA-DR3,DQw2 and DR4,DQw8 and with the presence of amino acids other than aspartic acid at position 57 on the HLA-DQβ chain. In Finland the haplotype-specific absolute risk for developing Type 1 diabetes differs between various DR3 and DR4 positive haplotypes. The aim of our present analysis was to find out whether this variation is attributable to polymorphism at the DQ locus. As part of a nationwide prospective study including 757 serologically HLA genotyped families, we determined HLA-DQα and DQβ restriction fragment polymorphisms in 17 selected families with important susceptibility haplotypes. Additionally, the DQA1 alleles were determined from 19 haplotypes using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes, and the DQB1 second exon was sequenced from nine haplotypes. The DR3 as well as DR4 positive haplotypes frequently found in Type 1 diabetic patients showed no variation at the HLA-DQ locus, and they were DQw2 and DQw8, respectively. The absolute risk for Type 1 diabetes for DR4,DQw8 positive haplotypes A2,Cw4,Bw35,DR4 A3,Cw3,Bw62,DR4, A24,Cw7,Bw39,DR4, A2,Cw3,Bw62, DR4, and A2,Cw1,Bw56,DR4 was 35/100,000, 130/100,000, 166/100,000, 196/100,000, and 218/100,000, respectively. The absolute risks for DR3,DQw2 positive haplotypes A1, Cw7,B8,DR3 and A2,Cw7,B8,DR3 were 68/100,000 and 103/100,000, respectively. These results provide further evidence that not only the polymorphism at the DQ locus but also other genes of the haplotypes contribute to susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; epidemiology ; genetic-environmental interaction ; incidence ; familial occurrence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A nationwide study of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus was established in 1986 in Finland, the country with the highest incidence of this disease worldwide. The aim of the project called “Childhood Diabetes in Finland” is to evaluate the role of genetic, environmental and immunological factors and particularly the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of Type 1 diabetes. From September 1986 to April 1989, 801 families with a newly-diagnosed child aged 14 years or younger at the time of diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. The vast majority of the families agreed to participate in the comprehensive investigations of the study. HLA genotypes and haplotypes were determined in 757 families (95%). Our study also incorporates a prospective family study among non-diabetic siblings aged 3–19 years, and two case-control studies among the youngonset cases of Type 1 diabetes. During 1987–1989, the overall incidence of Type 1 diabetes was about 35.2 per 100,000 per year. It was higher in boys (38.4) than in girls (32.2). There was no clear geographic variation in incidence among the 12 provinces of Finland. Of the 1,014 cases during these 3 years only six cases were diagnosed before their first birthday. The incidence was high already in the age group 1–4-years old: 33.2 in boys and 29.5 in girls. Of the 801 families 90 (11.2%) were multiple case families, of which 66 had a parent with Type 1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis of the proband. The prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in the parents of these newly-diagnosed diabetic children was higher in fathers (5.7%) than in mothers (2.6%).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Preclinical IDDM ; islet cell antibodies ; early insulin response ; glucose elimination rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To learn more about the preclinical phase of IDDM we observed for a median period of 46.5 months (range 0.5–69 months) a group of 57 siblings positive for ICA and/or IAA when first screened within 6 months of the diagnosis of the proband. Sequential blood samples and IVGTTs were obtained at intervals of 6–12 months. Seventeen siblings (29.8%) presented with IDDM during the observation period. The duration of the known preclinical period ranged from 0.5 to 51 months (median 29 months). The converters were younger than the other siblings (P〈0.05) and had higher initial ICA levels (P〈0.01). In addition they had a lower FPIR in the first IVGTT (P〈0.001). On all subsequent tests the converters had higher ICA levels and a lower FPIR (P〈0.05 or less), a lower glucose elimination rate from the third test onwards (P〈0.01 or less) and higher IAA levels at 3 years (P〈0.05). Some variation could be observed in the FPIR in the converters with an initial increase and subsequent decrease (P〈0.05 for both). Their levels of complement-fixing ICA increased up to 18 months (P〈0.05) and IAA levels up to 3 years (P〈0.01). Those high risk siblings who progress to clinical IDDM are characterized by young age, strong and increasing signs of islet-cell specific autoimmunity, reduced insulin secreting capacity and emerging glucose intolerance. The present observations seem to be incompatible with the hypothesis of beta-cell destruction occurring at a constant, predictable rate.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Insulin profiles ; hypoinsulinaemia ; diabetic children ; C-peptide ; glucose profiles ; hypoglycaemia.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied associations of 24-h serum insulin profiles with insulin dose, age, gender, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-peptide values, as well as blood glucose profiles in 77 consecutive children – nine aged 2–4, 14 aged 5–8, 26 aged 9–12, and 28 aged 13–17 years – 2 years after the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Mean weight-based insulin doses in the four age groups were similar (0.7 ± 0.2 U · kg−1· day−1 in all); body surface-area-based doses differed. Insulin doses correlated significantly with the 24-h mean and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values, and with mean values at 03.00 hours of serum insulin in the children aged 5–8 and 13–17 years. The mean insulin concentrations of the age groups (95 % confidence intervals) increased with age [6.1 (3.8, 9.7), 7.6 (5.9, 9.8), 10.4 (8.6, 12.4), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.8) mU/l; p 〈 0.0002]. The 24-h mean of serum insulin together with HbA1c concentration predicted 32 % of the variation of mean blood glucose concentrations. Of children aged less than 9 years, 50 % had insulin values less than 5 mU/l (healthy subjects' lower reference limit), and 14 % were of less than 2 mU/l (detection limit of the assay) at 03.00 hours. At 07.00 hours, 82 % had insulin values of less than 5 mU/l, and 36 % were of less than 2 mU/l, respectively. Some young children had night-time hypoglycaemia with simultaneous hypoinsulinaemia. Insulin profiles correlated poorly with the HbA1c and peak C-peptide values. We conclude that in children the mean and AUC values of serum insulin profiles are age-dependent but C-peptide independent 2 years after the diagnosis of IDDM despite similar weight-based mean insulin doses. Nocturnal and morning hypoinsulinaemia was a frequent finding in the younger children, as was biochemical hypoglycaemia. These findings suggest that insulin kinetics and sensitivity differ markedly in children according to age. [Diabetologia (1995) 38: 97–105]
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Mumps ; mumps antibodies ; mumps-measlesrubella vaccination ; Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A nationwide mumps-measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in 1982 in Finland to children aged 1.5 to 6 years and since then mumps has virtually disappeared in the country. We investigated whether this rapid epidemiological change had any impact on antibody activity against mumps virus in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children or on the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Finland. Two case-control series were collected before (series I and II) and three series after (series III–V) the introduction of the vaccination. IgA class mumps antibody levels were significantly higher in Type 1 diabetic children than in matched control children in the first two but not in the three later series. IgG class antibody levels were similar in patients and control subjects in the first two series but significantly lower in patients than in control subjects in the three later series. The overall incidence of Type 1 diabetes in 0–14-year-old children increased until 1987 but remained about the same during 1988–1990. In 5–9-year-old children no further increase in Type 1 diabetes was seen since 1985, whereas in 0–4-year-old children the incidence continued to rise until 1990. The results suggest that the elimination of natural mumps by mumps-measles-rubella vaccination may have decreased the risk for Type 1 diabetes in Finland; a possible causal relationship is substantiated by the observed concomitant decrease in mumps antibody levels in diabetic children. However, further studies are required to determine if the vaccine virus, like natural mumps, could trigger the clinical onset of Type 1 diabetes in young children.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Insulin profiles ; hypoinsulinaemia ; diabetic children ; C-peptide ; glucose profiles ; hypoglycaemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied associations of 24-h serum insulin profiles with insulin dose, age, gender, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-peptide values, as well as blood glucose profiles in 77 consecutive childrennine aged 2–4, 14 aged 5–8, 26 aged 9–12, and 28 aged 13–17 years—2 years after the onset of insulindependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Mean weightbased insulin doses in the four age groups were similar (0.7±0.2 U·kg−1·day−1 in all); body surface-area-based doses differed. Insulin doses correlated significantly with the 24-h mean and area-under-thecurve (AUC) values, and with mean values at 03.00 hours of serum insulin in the children aged 5–8 and 13–17 years. The mean insulin concentrations of the age groups (95% confidence intervals) increased with age [6.1 (3.8, 9.7), 7.6 (5.9, 9.8), 10.4 (8.6, 12.4), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.8) mU/l;p〈0.0002]. The 24-h mean of serum insulin together with HbA1c concentration predicted 32% of the variation of mean blood glucose concentrations. Of children aged less than 9 years, 50% had insulin values less than 5 mU/l (healthy subjects' lower reference limit), and 14% were of less than 2 mU/l (detection limit of the assay) at 03.00 hours. At 07.00 hours, 82% had insulin values of less than 5 mU/l, and 36% were of less than 2 mU/l, respectively. Some young children had night-time hypoglycaemia with simultaneous hypoinsulinaemia. Insulin profiles correlated poorly with the HbA1c and peak C-peptide values. We conclude that in children the mean and AUC values of serum insulin profiles are age-dependent but C-peptide independent 2 years after the diagnosis of IDDM despite similar weight-based mean insulin doses. Nocturnal and morning hypoinsulinaemia was a frequent finding in the younger children, as was biochemical hypoglycaemia. These findings suggest that insulin kinetics and sensitivity differ markedly in children according to age. [Diabetologia (1995) 38:97–105]
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Infant feeding ; dairy products ; cow's milk protein antibodies ; IDDM ; childhood ; islet cell antibodies ; insulin autoantibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Associations of infant feeding patterns and milk consumption with cow's milk protein antibody titres were studied in 697 newly-diagnosed diabetic children, 415 sibling-control children and 86 birth-date-and sex-matched population-based control children in the nationwide “Childhood Diabetes in Finland” study. IgA and IgG antibody titres to the proteins of cow's milk formula, BLG and BSA, and IgM antibody titres to cow's milk formula proteins were measured by ELISA. Several inverse correlations were observed between the duration of breast-feeding or age at introduction of dairy products and antibody titres, and positive correlations were observed between milk consumption and antibody titres in all three populations studied. Multivariate analyses which included the infant feeding variables, milk consumption and current age simultaneously showed that the earlier the introduction of dairy products and the greater the consumption of milk was, the higher several antibody titres were. High IgA antibody titres to cow's milk formula were associated with a greater risk of IDDM both among diabeticpopulation-control and diabetic-sibling-control pairs when adjusted for other cow's milk antibody titres, dietary variables and in diabetic-sibling-control pairs also for ICA. The results suggest that young age at introduction of dairy products and high milk consumption during childhood increase the levels of cow's milk antibodies and that high IgA antibodies to cow's milk formula are independently associated with increased risk of IDDM.
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