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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Kongress Medizin und Gesellschaft 2007; 20070917-20070921; Augsburg; DOC07gmds742 /20070906/
    Publication Date: 2007-09-07
    Keywords: HPV ; NMSC ; SCC ; BCC ; Hautkrebs ; ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; INFECTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; INDIVIDUALS ; glutathione-S-transferase ; E6 PROTEINS ; SEROPOSITIVITY ; BASAL-CELL ; UV-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common worldwide and, in immunodeficient populations, may contribute to the pathogenesis of keratinocyte cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, their role in SCC in the general population is less clear. We conducted a comprehensive analysis to investigate the independent effects of seropositivity for cutaneous alpha, beta and gamma HPV types on risk of SCC, and a meta-analysis of the available literature. In a population-based case-control study from New Hampshire, USA (n = 1,408), histologically confirmed SCC cases and controls were tested for L1 antibodies to alpha, beta and gamma cutaneous HPV types 2-5, 7-10, 15, 17, 20, 23, 24, 27b, 36, 38, 48-50, 57, 65, 75-77, 88, 92, 95, 96, 101, 103 and 107 using multiplex serology. An increasing risk of SCC with number of beta HPVs to which an individual tested positive was observed even among those seronegative for gamma types (p for trend = 0.016) with an odds ratio of 1.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-3.56) for four or more beta types positive. In a meta-analysis of six case-control studies, increased SCC risks in relation to beta HPV seropositivity were found across studies (meta odds ratio = 1.45, CI = 1.27-1.66). While the prevalence of gamma HPVs assayed was somewhat higher among SCC cases than controls, the association was only weakly evident among those seronegative for beta HPVs. Overall, the association between cutaneous HPVs and skin cancers appears to be specific to SCC and to genus beta HPVs in a general US population.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23536363
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  • 3
    Keywords: SYSTEM ; POPULATION ; DELTA T-CELLS ; SKIN-CANCER ; glutathione-S-transferase ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; IMMUNE-SURVEILLANCE ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION ; BASAL-CELL ; HLA-C
    Abstract: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of the HLA-C gene is associated with HLA-C expression, and the high expressing genotype (CC) has been associated with HIV-I control. HLA-C is unique among the classical MHC class I molecules for its role in the control of viral infections and recognition of abnormal or missing self. This immunosurveillance is central to the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in particular. While sun exposure is a major risk factor for these cancers, cutaneous infections with genus beta-HPV have been implicated in the development of SCC. We hypothesized that the high expression HLA-C genotype is associated with beta-HPV infections. Therefore, we investigated the association between beta-HPV serology and the -35 kb SNP (rs9264942) in a population-based case-control study of 510 SCC cases and 608 controls. Among controls, the high expression -35 kb SNP genotype (CC) reduced the likelihood of positive serology for multiple (〉/=2) beta-HPV infections (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.97), and beta-HPV species 2 infection (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23-0.79). However, no association with beta-HPV status was observed among SCC cases. Our findings suggest that underlying immunogenotype plays an important role in differential control of beta-HPV in SCC cases and controls.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25083782
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  • 4
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; RISK ; COMPLEXES ; AMPLIFICATION ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; MUTATIONS ; VARIANT ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; CONFERS SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Abstract: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell-cycle protein. We performed genetic fine-mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r(2) 〉/= 0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group, we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWASs, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele OR = 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.27, P = 4.67 x 10(-5)] versus OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.10, P = 0.79) for nonaggressive disease, with P = 0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (P = 0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (Ptrend = 0.024). Overexpression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E overexpression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5808-18. (c)2014 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25320178
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  • 5
    Keywords: PROGRAM ; PUBLIC-HEALTH ; POLICY ; ADHERENCE ; PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING SCIENCE ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC ENTERPRISE ; CANCER-EPIDEMIOLOGY ; PLEA ; FALSE ; RECIPE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. OBJECTIVES: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. DISCUSSION: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. CONCLUSIONS: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25712798
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  • 6
    Abstract: Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P 〈 1 x 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 x 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 x 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P 〈/= 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26732427
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Merkel cell polyomavirus (PyV) is causally related to Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare skin malignancy. Little is known about the serostability of other PyVs over time or associations with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: As part of a U.S. nested case-control study, antibody response against the PyV VP1 capsid proteins of BK and John Cunningham virus (JC) was measured using multiplex serology on 113 SCC cases and 229 gender, age, and study center-matched controls who had a prior keratinocyte cancer. Repeated serum samples from controls and both pre and postdiagnosis samples from a subset of SCC cases were also tested. Odds ratios (OR) for SCC associated with seropositivity to each PyV type were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among controls, BK and JC seroreactivity was stable over time, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.86 for BK and 0.94 for JC. Among cases, there was little evidence of seroconversion following SCC diagnosis. JC seropositivity prior to diagnosis was associated with an elevated risk of SCC (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.23-5.25), and SCC risk increased with increasing quartiles of JC (Ptrend = 0.004) and BK (Ptrend = 0.02) seroreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: PyV antibody levels were stable over time and following an SCC diagnosis. A history of PyV infection may be involved in the occurrence of SCC in a population at high risk for this malignancy. IMPACT: A single measure of PyV seroreactivity appears a reliable indicator of long-term antibody status, and PyV exposure may be a risk factor for subsequent SCC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 736-44. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26908434
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  • 8
    Keywords: GENE ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; DNA-REPAIR ; PHENOTYPE ; CONFERS SUSCEPTIBILITY ; INDEPENDENCE ; NAT2 SLOW ACETYLATION ; GSTM1 NULL ; NADH CYTOCHROME B(5)
    Abstract: Bladder cancer is a complex disease with known environmental and genetic risk factors. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWAS) of smoking and bladder cancer risk based on primary scan data from 3002 cases and 4411 controls from the National Cancer Institute Bladder Cancer GWAS. Alternative methods were used to evaluate both additive and multiplicative interactions between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking exposure. SNPs with interaction P values 〈 5 x 10(-) (5) were evaluated further in an independent dataset of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls. We identified 10 SNPs that showed association in a consistent manner with the initial dataset and in the combined dataset, providing evidence of interaction with tobacco use. Further, two of these novel SNPs showed strong evidence of association with bladder cancer in tobacco use subgroups that approached genome-wide significance. Specifically, rs1711973 (FOXF2) on 6p25.3 was a susceptibility SNP for never smokers [combined odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-1.50, P value = 5.18 x 10(-) (7)]; and rs12216499 (RSPH3-TAGAP-EZR) on 6q25.3 was a susceptibility SNP for ever smokers (combined OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.67-0.84, P value = 6.35 x 10(-) (7)). In our analysis of smoking and bladder cancer, the tests for multiplicative interaction seemed to more commonly identify susceptibility loci with associations in never smokers, whereas the additive interaction analysis identified more loci with associations among smokers-including the known smoking and NAT2 acetylation interaction. Our findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for tobacco and bladder cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24662972
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  • 9
    Keywords: PROTEINS ; PATHOGENESIS ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; glutathione-S-transferase ; ELISA ; serology
    Abstract: HPV infection is a causal agent in many epithelial cancers, yet our understanding of genetic susceptibility to HPV infection and resultant cancer risk is limited. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis is a rare condition of extreme susceptibility to cutaneous HPV infection primarily attributable to mutations in TMC6 and TMC8. Genetic variation in the TMC6/TMC8 region has been linked to beta-type HPV infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, cervical cancer, HPV persistence and progression to cervical cancer. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that the common TMC8 SNP rs7208422 is associated with high-risk HPV infection and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Seropositivity to the HPV L1 protein (HPV16, 18, 11, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58) was measured in 514 cases and 452 population-based controls. Genotype was significantly associated with seropositivity to HPV18 L1 (OR TT vs AA = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.22-0.99) and borderline significantly associated with HPV16 L1 (OR TT vs AA = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.22-1.17). There was a consistent inverse association between TMC8 genotype and infection with other HPV types, including statistically significant associations for HPV31 and HPV52. Consistent with these results, the variant T genotype was associated with a reduced risk of HNSCC (ORAT: 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89, ORTT: 0.54, 95% CI 0.36-0.81), even among subjects seronegative for all HPV types (ORAT: 0.71, 95% CI 0.45-1.11, ORTT: 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.93). Our data indicate that common genetic variation in TMC8 is associated with high-risk HPV infection and HNSCC etiology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25853559
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  • 10
    Abstract: Polyomaviruses (PyV) are potentially tumorigenic in humans. However, limited data exist on the population seroprevalence of PyVs and individual characteristics that relate to seropositivity. Using multiplex serology, we determined the seroprevalence of 10 human PyVs (BK, JC, KI, WU, MCV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSV, HPyV9, and HPyV10) among controls from a population-based skin cancer case-control study (n = 460) conducted in New Hampshire between 1993 and 1995. On a subset of participants (n = 194), methylation at CpG dinucleotides across the genome was measured in peripheral blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip array (Illumina Inc., San Diego, California), from which lymphocyte subtype proportions were inferred. All participants were seropositive for at least 1 PyV, with seroprevalences ranging from 17.6% (HPyV9) to 99.1% (HPyV10). Seropositivity to JC, MCV, and HPyV7 increased with age. JC and TSV seropositivity were more common among men than among women. Smokers were more likely to be HPyV9-seropositive but MCV-seronegative, and HPyV7 seropositivity was associated with prolonged glucocorticoid use. Based on DNA methylation profiles, differences were observed in CD8-positive T- and B-cell proportions by BK, JC, and HPyV9 seropositivity. Our findings suggest that PyV seropositivity is common in the United States and varies by sociodemographic and biological characteristics, including those related to immune function.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26667254
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