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  • 1
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: DKK3 (dickkopf 3), a 36-kD secreted glycoprotein, has been shown to be involved in the differentiation of partially reprogrammed cells and embryonic stem cells to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but little is known about its involvement in vascular disease. This study aims to assess the effects of DKK3 on atherosclerotic plaque composition. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the present study, we used a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE(-/-)) in conjunction with DKK3(-/-) and performed tandem stenosis of the carotid artery to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque development. We found that the absence of DKK3 leads to vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, because of a reduced number of SMCs and reduced matrix protein deposition, as well as increased hemorrhage and macrophage infiltration. Further in vitro studies revealed that DKK3 can induce differentiation of Sca1(+) vascular progenitors and fibroblasts into SMCs via activation of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta)/ATF6 and Wnt signaling pathways. Finally, we assessed the therapeutic potential of DKK3 in mouse and rabbit models and found that DKK3 altered the atherosclerotic plaque content via increasing SMC numbers and reducing vascular inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulatively, we provide the first evidence that DKK3 is a potent SMC differentiation factor, which might have a therapeutic effect in reducing intraplaque hemorrhage related to atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29284609
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  • 2
    Abstract: Background -Dickkopf-related protein (DKK) 3 is a secreted protein that is involved in the regulation of cardiac remodeling and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, but little is known about its role in atherosclerosis. Methods -We tested the hypothesis that DKK3 is atheroprotective using both epidemiological and experimental approaches. Blood DKK3 levels were measured in the Bruneck Study in 2000 (n=684) and then in 2005 (n=574). DKK3-deficient mice were crossed to ApoE-/- mice to evaluate atherosclerosis development and vessel injury-induced neointimal formation. Endothelial cell migration and the underlying mechanisms were studied using in vitro cell culture models. Results -In the prospective population-based Bruneck Study, the level of plasma DKK3 was inversely related to carotid artery intima-media thickness and five-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis, independently from standard risk factors for atherosclerosis. Experimentally, we analyzed the area of atherosclerotic lesions, femoral artery injury-induced re-endothelialization and neointima formation in both DKK3-/-/ApoE-/- and DKK3+/+/ApoE-/- mice. It was demonstrated that DKK3 deficiency accelerated atherosclerosis and delayed re-endothelialization with consequently exacerbated neointima formation. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we performed transwell and scratch migration assays using cultured human endothelial cells, which exhibited a significant induction in cell migration in response to DKK3 stimulation. This DKK3-induced migration was associated with activation of ROR2 and DVL1, activated Rac1 GTPases and upregulated JNK and c-jun phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Knockdown of ROR2 receptor using specific siRNA or transfection of a dominant negative form of Rac1 in endothelial cells markedly inhibited cell migration and downstream JNK and c-jun phosphorylation. Conclusions -This study provides the evidence for a role of DKK3 in the protection against atherosclerosis involving endothelial migration and repair, with great therapeutic potential implications against atherosclerosis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28674110
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