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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Key words Cyclosporin ; conversion ; liver transplantation ; Conversion ; cyclosporin ; liver transplantation ; Liver transplantation ; conversion ; cyclosporin ; Pediatric liver transplantation ; pharmacokinetics ; Pharmacokinetics ; pediatric liver transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Absorption of cyclosporin from the microemulsion formulation Neoral is less variable than from Sandimmun. Because of a lack of data in pediatric liver transplant recipients, the pharmacokinetic profiles with Sandimmun and Neoral were compared in a conversion study. Thirty-eight children with stable graft function were converted 2–12.3 years post-transplant at a 1:1 ratio. The trough-level (Cmin) with Neoral was 123 ± 39 ng/ml versus 134 ± 29 ng/ml with Sandimmun (P = NS), the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 3325 ± 1125 ng*h/ml versus 2423 ± 846 ng*h/ml (P 〈 0.001), the peak concentration (Cmax) was 650 ± 280 ng/ml versus 337 ± 142 ng/ml (P 〈 0.001), and the median time to Cmax was 2 h (range 0.5–3 h) versus 4 h (range 1–8 h; P 〈 0.05). The weak correlation between Cmin and AUC with Sandimmun (r = 0.5; P = NS) was improved by using Neoral (r = 0.7; P 〈 0.001). The best predictor of AUC was the 2-h concentration (C2 h) of Neoral (r = 0.9; P 〈 0.001). Increased absorption and a more predictable pharmacokinetic profile with Neoral permit safer therapeutic monitoring in children. The exclusive measurement of Neoral-C2 h allows one to estimate drug exposure with high precision ( 〉 90 %).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni infection ; Renal function ; Children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Renal function was investigated in 218 school children withSchistosoma mansoni infection in the Province of Gezira in central Sudan and in 65 Sudanese and 65 German age-matched controls. Serum creatinine was normal in all children. A pathological urinary protein-creatinine ratio was found in 3% ofS. mansoni-infected children and in 5% of Sudanese controls but in none of the European children. Characterization of pathological proteinuria using albumin nephelometry, alpha-1 microglobulin immunodiffusion and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in these children showed glomerular, tubular or mixed glomerulotubular patterns. One, 4 and 6 months following treatment of schistosomiasis with praziquantel, stools were re-examined; 57% of patients were cured, 16% were found to be reinfected and 27% had persistent egg excretion. Six months after therapy, pathological urinary protein-creatinine ratios were encountered in 3% ofS. mansoni patients and in none of the 34 reinvestigated controls. Proteinuria was similar in patients with persistentS. mansoni egg excretion and in children cured of schistosomiasis infection. It is concluded that there was no evidence forS. mansoni associated glomerulonephritis in this group of Sudanese children. The high rate of pathological proteinuria inS. mansoni-infected and non-infected Sudanese children may be due to other causes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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