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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Autoregulation ; arterial blood pressure ; glomerular filtration ; diabetic nephropathy ; Type 1 diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of acute lowering of arterial blood pressure upon kidney function in nephropathy was studied in 13 patients with long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Ten normal subjects (six normotensive and four hypertensive) and five short-term Type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy served as controls. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique) and urinary albumin excretion rate (radial immunodiffusion). The study was performed twice within 2 weeks, with the subjects receiving an intravenous injection of either clonidine (225 μg) or saline (0.154 mmol/l). The arterial blood pressure was similar in the diabetic patients with nephropathy (mean 136±11 mmHg) and in the non-diabetic control subjects 88±5 (mean 140±25 mmHg). The clonidine injection induced sim- 92±15 ilar reductions in mean arterial blood pressure in all three groups (16–18 mmHg). While glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion rate remained unchanged in both control groups after clonidine injection, glomerular filtration rate dimished from 78 to 71 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (p〈0.01), and urinary albumin excretion declined from 1707 to 938 μg/min (p〈0.01) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that an intrinsic vascular (arteriolar) mechanism underlying the normal autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate, i. e. the relative constancy of glomerular filtration rate that occurs in response to rather wide variations in perfusion pressure, is defective in diabetic nephropathy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The function of membrane phospholipids (PL) in the regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport and GABA carrier binding has been investigated in organized cultures of rat cerebral cortex. The cellular lipid composition has been changed by growing the cells in a delipidated nutrient solution or by short-term exposure of the cells to PL emulsions. Introduction of PL into the cellular matrix was monitored by analysis of biologically active fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Parinaroyl and dansyl derivatives were used. Conditions of maintenance as well as exogenously given PL affected the transport of GABA. Two transport systems were observed, one first-order system and one cooperative system. Saturated species of PC or PE reduced first-order GABA uptake with increase in chain length of the fatty acid residues. The effects of unsaturated PL were dependent upon the polar head. Unsaturated PC enhanced the capacity of the first-order transport of the amino acid. In comparison to cultures grown in lipid-free medium, introduction of diarachinoyl-PC into the cells increased the density of the first-order active transport sites by a factor of 8 and the affinity constant by a factor of 17. Diarachinoyl-PE reduced both kinetic parameters. GABA uptake via the cooperative system was enhanced by the unsaturated PE, not by PC. The role of endogenous PL and their asymmetric distribution was studied by application of phospholipase A2, C, and D. Stimulation of carrier activity was induced by hydrolysis of PL on the external leaflet. Inhibition occurred upon enzymatic degradation of external and cytoplasmic PL. Lipolysis also affected GABA receptor binding, suggesting that the effects observed represent the activity of both classes of binding sites, the carrier and the receptor. However the latter accounted for a small fraction of the binding. Transport of the amino acid was temperature sensitive. The temperature curve was shifted within two discontinuities, appearing in the Arrhenius plot as a function of membrane lipids. The results suggest a partitioning of the proteins between fluid and ordered lipid domains. Displacement of the protein may govern the rate constants and/or the effective protein concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Using theSU (2) Higgs system with dynamical scalar matter fields as a model for analyzing screening properties of the confining potential in gauge theories, we examine the Wilson loopW (T, R) and the gauge invariant 2-point functionG(T, R) by Monte Carlo simulations on a 164 lattice. For small values of the hopping parameterk these quantities show non-asymptotic area law behavior which changes to asymptotic perimeter law behavior ask increases. Close to the Higgs phase transition we find an indication that both these asymptotic and nonasymptotic terms are present simultaneously within the lattice at different distancesR andT and that the breaking of the confining flux tube by matter pair production occurs within the lattice. Introducing an appropriate ansatz forW(T, R) andG(T, R), respectively, we determine in this complex situation the string tension, the screening energy of the external sources, and the order parameter introduced by Fredenhagen and Marcu.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss some aspects of a classical meson source which has been used for the description of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions. A detailed analytical discussion for very small and very large momentum transfers reveals some interesting simple features for the dominant factor of the elastic cross section.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Langenbeck's archives of surgery 273 (1953), S. 209-213 
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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