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  • 1
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] From chromosomal region 17q21.3, where a tumour suppressor gene(s) for breast and ovarian cancers is thought to be present, we have isolated a novel gene from a cosmid clone that revealed somatic rearrangements in two breast cancers. The gene (MDC) encodes a 524–amino acid ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] The BRCA2 gene is composed of 27 exons distributed over roughly 70 kb of genomic DNA6. Using PCR-SSCP, we screened the entire coding sequence and intronic sequences flanking each of its exons for mutations in DNAs from 100 primary breast cancers. The DNA sequences of PCR products obtained from ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: obesity ; estrogen receptor ; progesterone receptor ; Japanese women ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An association between hormone receptors in primary breast cancer and obesity determined prior to mastectomy was investigated in 128 Japanese women. The following criteria for obesity were used: (1) weight ≥60 kg (132 lbs), (2) weight kg/height cm−105 ≥ 1.3, (3) weight lbs/height in ≥2.30, (4) body surface area ≥1.56 m2. In view of the 4 criteria, tumor estrogen receptor (ER) values ≥ 4 fmol/mg were observed in obese patients more often than in nonobese patients, though the difference was not statistically significant. The same tendency was observed in the postmenopausal subgroup, 62 patients, especially in the 36 patients more than 5 years beyond menopause. However, there was still no statistical difference between obese and nonobese patients because the number of subjects was small. The same tendency was observed in the case of progesterone receptor (PgR) (≥6 fmol/mg) as observed in the case of ER.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; ductal carcinoma in situ ; Gadolinium-DTPA ; galactography ; magnetic resonance imaging ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new method of galactography using magnetic resonance imaging for a patient with nipple discharge is developed. The method is as follows; coronal T1-weight images are obtained after an injection of contrast medium of 1 mmol/L Gd-DTPA directly into the discharge duct, before and after rapid intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA. A case of a 29-year-old woman with ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasion is reported, in which all portions of the entire discharge duct system is clearly shown as viewed from the surface and the surrounding area is enhanced with Gd-DTPA. The enhanced area is coincidental with the extent of the disease. This magnetic resonance galactography for patients with nipple discharge may be used to supplement conventional mammography and/or galactography especially for the evaluation of the extent of disease, although it is somewhat inferior to mammographic galactography in terms of differential diagnosis of ductal disease.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; metastasis ; liver metastasis ; surgical procedure ; hepatectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have performed a retrospective study to evaluate whether surgical treatment is beneficial in patients with hepatic metastases from breast cancer. Between September 1985 and September 1998, 25 patients with hepatic metastases (14 solitary and 11 multiple), eight of whom had extrahepatic metastases, underwent hepatectomy. All of the detectable liver metastasis were resected in all of the cases. There were no severe postoperative complications. All but one of the patients received adjunctive polychemotherapy after the hepatectomy. After the hepatectomy, recurrent tumors were detected in 18 of the patients, being located in the liver in 12 (67%) of them. Overall, however, hepatectomy ensured that the liver was clinically recurrence-free for a median of 24 months (range 2–132 months). Eleven patients died of recurrent tumors, two died of other causes and the remaining 12 are currently alive. The 2- and 5-year cumulative survival rates after hepatectomy were 71% and 27%, respectively, and the median survival duration was 34.3±3.2 months, much better than the period of 8.5 months for another series of patients treated with standard or non-surgical therapies at our institution. The number and the size of hepatic metastases, the interval between treatment of the primary lesion and hepatectomy, and the existence of extrahepatic metastasis were not adverse prognostic factors. In conclusion, our data, although limited and highly selective, suggest that surgical treatment of hepatic metastases from breast cancer may prolong survival in certain subgroups of patients to a greater extent than standard or non-surgical therapies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Breast conservation ; Quadrantectomy ; Lumpectomy ; Radiotherapy ; Serial section
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast conserving treatment usually consists of lumpectomy and axillary dissection followed by a limited dose of irradiation so that no significant side-effects occur. However, the precision of lumpectomy depends on the surgical maneuver and pathological evaluation performed at each institution. For this reason, post-operative irradiation to the preserved breast and for the occult carcinoma in the same breast is absolutely mandatory, and effectively becomes a routine step. In 1986, we started to adopt the new breast-conservation method of quadrantectomy with axillary dissection for restricted stage I breast cancer without using radiotherapy, at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. As an alternative to irradiation to ensure safety, we chose to administer an elaborate pathological examination on serial sections. The pathological proof has saved troublesome post-operative irradiation, and the results have shown this method to be safe and clear-cut compared to the traditional breast-conserving treatment cited in the literature. From July 1986 to December 1994, we performed 321 cases of quadrantectomy and axillary dissection (Q+Ax). If the detailed pathological examination of 5-mm serial sections revealed the stump to be negative, we did not treat the preserved breast with radiotherapy. Out of 321 cases, 247 were analyzed as being stump-negative and of these 235 did not receive radiotherapy at all. During a 5 year 4 month observation period, we have not yet encountered any local recurrence. However, we have experienced 4 cases (1.70%) in which a second cancer developed in the conserved breast. The annual incidence rate was 0.32%. These results are the best so far compared to other published world reports.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Breast cancer ; Latent cancer ; Mammography ; Microcalcification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Detection of small or early neoplastic lesions is essential for the secondary prevention of cancer, and for this purpose information concerning their incidence and characteristics is required. Although data for latent or early cancers are available for various organs, details are limited in the case of the breast. The present investigation was carried out to cast light on the incidence of latent cancers, considered as lesions, in women with no symptoms and no palpable mass of the breast. Out of 2126 women visiting our hospital for initial breast examination during July to December in 1987, 542 (25.5%) had no complaint and neither a detectable mass on careful palpation nor a tumor shadow on mammography. However, 21 (3.9%) demonstrated microcalcification, 7 giving the impression of a possible malignancy. Subsequent biopsy of the 7 cases revealed 3 carcinomas. The detection rate of breast cancer in this population was thus 0.6% (3/542). Adopting the frequency (36%) of microcalcification detectable on mammography in 185 breast cancers diagnosed in this period as a base, the incidence of latent breast cancer among women visiting our hospital was calculated to be 1.5%.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-232X
    Keywords: Key wordsBRCA1 ; BRCA2 ; Breast cancer family ; Germline mutation ; Missense mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mutations in either of two recently identified genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are thought to be responsible for approximately two-thirds of all cases of autosomal-dominantly inherited breast cancer. To examine the nature and frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Japanese families exhibiting a high incidence of breast cancer, we screened 78 unrelated families in this category for mutations of these two genes. Examining the entire coding sequences as well as exon–intron boundaries of both genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and multiplex-SSCP analysis, we identified possible disease-causing alterations in BRCA1 among affected members of 15 families and in BRCA2 in another 14 families. In 15 of those 29 families, the affected individuals carried missense mutations, although most germline mutations reported worldwide have been deletions or nonsense mutations. Our results, indicating that missense mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tend to predominate over frameshifts or nonsense mutations in Japanese breast cancer families, will contribute signifi-cantly to an understanding of mammary tumorigenesis in Japan, and will be of vital importance for future genetic testing.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; duct endoscopy ; galactography ; intraductal biopsy of the breast ; nipple discharge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Microdochectomy is usually performed on patients with nipple discharge caused by intraductal proliferative lesions, such as intraductal papilloma and carcinoma. But this operation often sacrifices large amounts of normal mammary gland even when the lesion is a benign intraductal papilloma a few millimeters in diameter. We have developed duct endoscopy for the mammary duct system, and have reliably performed biopsies for intraductal proliferative lesions intraductally. From June 1989 to April 1990, we examined 22 cases by duct endoscopy, and performed endoscopic biopsy in 16 cases. The method of endoscopic biopsy is as follows. First, a bougie is inserted, without anesthesia other than Xylocaine jelly, into the orifice of the duct to enlarge it. Second, the outer cylinder and the inner needle are inserted; then the inner needle is removed, and the endoscope is inserted. After examination, the outer cylinder is moved up to the lesion to be biopsied and the endoscope is taken out. Then a sample is taken into the outer cylinder by aspiration. We diagnosed 10 cases of benign lesion and 5 cases of malignant lesion by cytological and/or histological examination. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsy, aided by duct endoscopy, is a useful and harmless diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of nipple discharge.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1436-2813
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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