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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Early and late primary IgM antibody responses of mice to Thy-1.1 antigens showed different antigenic and cellular requirements. We studied genetic controls of the early primary responses, which could be induced by subcellular thymocyte antigens independently of host T-cell activity. All Thy-1.2 mouse strains of Igh a(BALB/c and BC8), Igh-V aCb(BAB14), Igh d(AKR/Cum), Igh j(CBA/J, C3H/HeN, C3H.SW, and C3H.JK), and Igh n(NZB) definitely responded early to Thy-1.1 antigens from AKR/J (Igh d), A.Thy-1.1 (Igh e), or B10.Thy-1.1 (Igh b) mice or SD rats, whereas all strains of Igh b(C57BL/6, C57BL/10, B10.D2, B10.BR, B10.A, CB20 and CWB), Igh c(DBA/2), Igh e(A/J), and Igh o(C.AL20) responded poorly to the same antigens. This contrasts with the observation that both strains of Igh j(C3H/HeN) and Igh b(B10.BR) responded well at later times. As was the case for late responses, the matching of H-2 between donor and recipient resulted in early responses of exceptional quality in high-responder strains. It was concluded that under the influence of H-2, whose incompatibility between donor and recipient partially interferes with responses, early but not late primary Thy-1.1-specific antibody responses are selectively controlled by Igh-V or closely linked Ir gene(s) as a new V Hmarker.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A viral growth enhancing factor (enhancer) was produced in the chorioallantois of eggs infected with PR8 virus and released into the allantoic fluid. Enhancer was detected by its ability to enhance HA production by HVJ in roller tube cultures of shell-membrane pieces. The enhancement of HA production was obtained either by preincubation of the cultures with enhancer at 37° C for 24 hours before challenge of HVJ, or by its addition to the cultures simultanously with the challenge. The production and release of enhancer occurred in the early stages of infection with 104 to 105 EID50 of PR8 virus. Enhancer activity of the allantoic fluid and chorioallantois declined rapidly after 24 hours of infection and was followed by the appearance of interferon activity. The time when enhancer activity was increasing and maintained a high level corresponds with the time when virus was growing approximately at a linear slope. Interferon activity first appeared in the chorioallantoic membrane and allantoic fluid at 36 hours after infection with PR8 virus, when virus growth had already reached a maximal level. Subsequent rise in interferon titers was associated with decline of cellular virus titers.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Newcastle disease virus multiplied faster and reached higher maximal titers of infectivity in cultures of chorioallantoic membranes pretreated with enhancer (prepared from HVJ-infected allantoic fluid) than in control cultures.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Entre Février, 1974 et Juin, 1976, 11 réimplantations de bras ont été réalisées au Chukyo Hospital: 10 ont réussi. Les études postopératoires ont porté sur l'état circulatoire, la longueur et la circonférence, les fonctions motrices et sensibles et le système nerveux autonome. La circulation périphérique des bras réimplantés est assez pauvre, mais est sans rapport étroit avec l'état functionnel du membre. Une sensibilité utile est réapparue chez 8 malades et 6 ont récupéré la fonction de préhension. L'examen objectif révèle que 6 malades ont retrouvé une fonction satisfaisante. Au point de vue subjectif, 8 malades sont satisfaits des résultats et nous espérons obtenir une fonction satisfaisante chez les 2 autres. Les facteurs les plus importants pour le pronostic fonctionnel sont le niveau de section et la gravité des lésions d'écrasement. Pour obtenir des résultats satisfaisants, la réimplantation ne devrait être faite que chez des malades jeunes, avec une section franche, non contuse.
    Notes: Abstract From February, 1974 to June, 1976, replantation of 11 severed arms was performed at Chukyo Hospital, and 10 of these replantations were successful. Follow-up studies were performed regarding the status of the circulation, length and girth, motor function, sensory function, and autonomic nerve function. The peripheral circulation of the replanted arms was relatively poor, but did not correlate closely with function of the arm. Useful sensation returned in 8 patients and effective pinch and grasp returned in 6 patients. When observed objectively, 6 of 10 patients recovered satisfactory function. Subjectively, however, 8 patients were satisfied with their results and in the remaining 2 patients, satisfactory function in the future is anticipated. The most important factors in functional prognosis were the level of severance and the severity of crushing. In order to obtain satisfactory results, replantation should be confined to young patients with a non-crushing amputation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A mutant, No. 65, of Hansenula polymorpha CBS 4732 was isolated which was impaired in its ability to grow on methanol and dihydroxyacetone. Mutant No. 65 produced dihydroxyacetone and glycerol from methanol with a 18.8% yield in a resting-cells reaction. The absence of dihydroxyacetone kinase activity in the mutant is believed to be the reason for its inability to grow on methanol and for the accumulation of trioses. This mutant, however, was able to grow on glycerol, and dihydroxyacetone kinase was found in the cells. The growth on glycerol was almost completely inhibited by the addition of methanol (0.1% v/v). As far as tested with partially purified enzymes, no property was found that could be used to distinguish between the kinases from methanol- and glycerol-grown cells. The evidence suggests that the phenotype of No. 65 is a lesion not in the structural gene but in its regulatory gene.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The formaldehyde-fixing system of a methanol-using bacterium, Methylomonas aminofaciens 77a, was used for the production of 13C-labelled d-fructose-6-phosphate from [13C]formaldehyde and d-ribose-5-phosphate. Although the cell-free extract of the methanol-grown cells gave a relatively high yield of the sugar phosphate, it was unsuited for the specific production of 13C-labelled sugar phosphate because of contamination due to non-labelled formaldehyde brought in with the extract. The specific and high-yield production of [1-13C]d-fructose-6-phosphate was performed using an enzyme system that contained partially purified 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and phospho-3-hexuloisomerase from the bacterium, and spinach phosphoriboisomerase. Several reaction conditions, amounts of the enzymes and the substrate concentration, were investigated. A fed-batch reaction, in which 50mm formaldehyde and 75 mm d-ribose-5-phosphate were added at 15-min intervals, afforded 205 mm (53.3 mg/ml) d-fructose-6-phosphate from 300 mm formaldehyde in added total over 90 min. The C-1 position of the sugar phosphate was confirmed to be labelled with 13C by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary N 6-[N-(6-Aminohexyl)carbamoylmethyl]-NAD was covalently bound to formate dehydrogenase. The formate dehydrogenase-NAD complex, which contained 0.2 mol of reactive NAD moiety per subunit, functioned as an NAD(H)-regeneration system for a second coupled reaction involving one of the following enzymes; lactate, malate, alanine and leucine dehydrogenases, whose reductive reactions proceeded stoichiometrically in the absence of exogenous NAD.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Formaldehyde dismutase was greatly stabilized by immobilization in a urethane prepolymer (PU-6). The immobilized enzyme exhibited stochiometrical dismutation of formaldehyde to methanol and formate in several repeated reactions. Conversion of methanol to formate occurred in a reaction with an immobilized enzyme system consisting of alcohol oxidase, catalase and formaldehyde dismutase, and with an intact cell-mixture of Hansenula polymorpha and Pseudomonas putida. Furthermore, the stability of the cell-mixture during repeated reactions was greatly improved by the immobilization, the 600 mM methanol added periodically being converted to formate in a 75% yield in 12 h. The immobilized cellsystem was also effective for the conversion of several aliphatic alcohols, C1 to C4, to the corresponding acids.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: As Gram-negative bacterial isolates producing plasmid-mediated IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase usually demonstrate resistance to various broad-spectrum β-lactams, including cephamycins and carbapenems, transmission and proliferation of these microorganisms in clinical settings could become a clinical threat in the near future. According to previous studies by the same authors, IMP-1-producing strains are usually isolated from urine samples. Therefore, in this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied for direct screening of the IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase gene in urine samples.Method: Urine samples were collected from 273 inpatients to whom various broad-spectrum β-lactams, including carbapenems, had been administered in 57 hospitals in 1997. DNA templates for PCR analyses were prepared directly from 19 urine samples from which Serratia marcescens strains demonstrating high-level resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration 〉 128 μg/mL) to both ceftazidime and cefoperazone–sulbactam were later isolated.Results: The IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase gene (bla&Igr;&Mgr;&Rgr;)-specific 578 bp fragments were able to be amplified successfully in eight of the 19 samples. In the seven strains isolated from the eight samples, the presence of blaIMP was also detected by a DNA hybridization analysis. The lower limit of the PCR method was determined as 1 × 102 CFU of blaIMP-bearing bacterial cells per 1 mL of urine sample. No false positive result was found.〈section xml:id="abs1-1"〉〈title type="main"〉ConclusionThe PCR-aided direct screening of blaIMP is applicable to early recognition of IMP-1-producing bacteria in urine samples. This method would help to prevent nosocomial and interhospital transmission of this kind of hazardous bacteria, as well as the advancement of rigorous infection control.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Homer-1a/Vesl1S, a member of the scaffold protein family Homer/Vesl, is expressed during seizure and serves to reduce seizure susceptibility. Cellular mechanisms for this feedback regulation were studied in neocortex pyramidal cells by injecting Homer-1a protein intracellularly. The injection reduced membrane excitability as demonstrated in two ways. First, the resting potential was hyperpolarized by 5–10 mV. Second, the mean frequency of spikes evoked by depolarizing current injection was decreased. This reduction of excitability was prevented by applying each of the followings: the calcium chelator BAPTA, the calcium store depletor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), the insitol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) blocker heparin, the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122, the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), and the large-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (BK channel) antagonist charybdotoxin. The small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK channel) blocker dequalinium was ineffective. These findings suggest that activation of mGluR by Homer-1a produced IP3, which caused inositol-induced calcium release and a consequent BK channel opening, thus hyperpolarizing the injected neurons. In slices from rats subjected to electroconvulsive shock (ECS), a comparable reduction of excitability was observed without Homer-1a injection. The ECS-induced reduction of excitability was abolished by MPEP, charybdotoxin, heparin or BAPTA. Intracellular injection of anti-Homer-1a antibody was suppressive as well, but anti-Homer-1b/c antibody was not. We propose that ECS-induced Homer-1a stimulated the same pathway as did the injected Homer-1a, thereby driving a feedback regulation of excitability.
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