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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two alloantigens, Ly1 and Ly2, were detected with alloantisera made by immunization with leukocytes. These antigens were present on red blood cells, peripheral leukocytes and spleen cells and found to be controlled by the autosomal codominant alleles. The phenotypic frequencies of Ly1 antigen in the three quail stocks, 1, 2, and 3, were 6.7, 0, and 100 percent, respectively, and those of Ly2 antigen were 0 percent in stocks 1 and 2, and 7.1 percent in stock 3. It was suggested that Ly1 and Ly2 antigens might be associated with the system controlling A(QN1) antigen which was originally detected by the natural alloantibody. However, it remains to be investigated whether these antigens are associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the Japanese quail.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: rats ; Es-4 ; linear order ; clusters ; linkage group V (LGV)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract There are three different linear orders of esterase loci of linkage group V (LGV) in the rat (Rattus norvegicus). The first isEs-2-Es-3-Es-1, the secondEs-3-(Es-2,Es-4)-Es-1, and the thirdEs-3-Es-2-Es-1-Es-4. We carried out mating experiments to define the order clearly. Linkage analyses of the four esterase loci,Es-1, Es-2, Es-3, andEs-4, were carried out using two inbred strains carrying different alleles at the four loci. Six locus combinations examined in this study were as follows:Es-1-Es-2, Es-1-Es-3, Es-1-Es-4, Es-2-Es-3, Es-2-Es-4, and Es-3-Es-4. The recombination frequencies of each combination were 6.3, 6.3, 6.3, 5.2, 1.8, and 3.4%, respectively. The first recombination betweenEs-2 andEs-4 was observed. We propose that the esterase loci of LGV be classified into three clusters according to distances between the loci. The linear order of the four loci is shown to be as follows: [Es-3] (cluster II)—3.4±2.4%—[Es-4—1.8±1.7%—Es-2] (cluster III)—6.3±6.1%—[Es-1] (cluster I).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: cardiac myocytes ; Na+/H+ exchange ; Na+/Ca2+ exchange ; hexamethylene amiloride ; sarcoplasmic reticulum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To investigate the contribution of the changes in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations ([Na+]i and [Ca2+]i) to myocardial reperfusion injury, we made an ischemia/reperfusion model in intact guinea pig myocytes. Myocardial ischemia was simulated by the perfusion of metabolic inhibitors (3.3 mM amobarbital and 5 μM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) with pH 6.6 and reperfusion was achieved by the washout of them with pH 7.4. [Na+]i increased from 7.9 ± 2.0 to 14.0 ± 3.4 mM (means ± S.E., p 〈 0.01) during 7.5 min of simulated ischemia (SI) and increased further to 18.8 ± 3.0 mM at 7.5 min after reperfusion. [Ca2+]i, expressed as the ratio of fluo 3 fluorescence intensity, increased to 133 ± 8% (p 〈 0.01) during SI and gradually returned to the control level after reperfusion. Intracellular pH decreased from 7.53 ± 0.04 to 6.31 ± 0.04 (p 〈 0.01) and recovered quickly after reperfusion. Reperfusion with the acidic solution or the continuous perfusion of hexamethylene amiloride (2 μM) prevented the reperfusion-induced increase in [Na+]i. When the duration of SI was prolonged to 15 min, the cell response after reperfusion varied, 16 of 37 cells kept quiescent, 21 cells showed spontaneous Ca2+ waves, and 4 cells out of these 21 cells became hypercontracted. In quiescent cells, both [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i decreased immediately after reperfusion. In cells with Ca2+ waves, [Na+]i transiently increased further at the early phase of reperfusion, while [Ca+]i declined. In hypercontracted cells, [Na+]i increased as much as in ‘Ca2+ wave’ cells, but [Ca2+]i increased extensively and both ion concentrations continued to increase. Reperfusion with the Ca2+-free solution prevented both the [Ca2+]i increase and morphological change. In the presence of ryanodine (10 μM), the increase in [Ca2+]i after reperfusion was augmented and some cells became hypercontracted. We concluded that (1) Na+/H+ exchange is active both during SI and reperfusion, resulting in the additional [Na+]i elevation on reperfusion, (2) the [Na+]i level after reperfusion and the following Ca2+ influx via Na+/Ca2+ exchange are crucial for reperfusion cell injury, and (3) the Ca2+ buffering capacity of sarcoplasmic reticulum would also contribute to the Ca2+ regulation and cell injury after reperfusion.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: rats ; Es-4 ; linear order ; clusters ; linkage group V (LGV)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract There are three different linear orders of esterase loci of linkage group V (LGV) in the rat (Rattus norvegicus). The first isEs-2-Es-3-Es-1, the secondEs-3-(Es-2,Es-4)-Es-1, and the thirdEs-3-Es-2-Es-1-Es-4. We carried out mating experiments to define the order clearly. Linkage analyses of the four esterase loci,Es-1, Es-2, Es-3, andEs-4, were carried out using two inbred strains carrying different alleles at the four loci. Six locus combinations examined in this study were as follows:Es-1-Es-2, Es-1-Es-3, Es-1-Es-4, Es-2-Es-3, Es-2-Es-4, and Es-3-Es-4. The recombination frequencies of each combination were 6.3, 6.3, 6.3, 5.2, 1.8, and 3.4%, respectively. The first recombination betweenEs-2 andEs-4 was observed. We propose that the esterase loci of LGV be classified into three clusters according to distances between the loci. The linear order of the four loci is shown to be as follows: [Es-3] (cluster II)—3.4±2.4%—[Es-4—1.8±1.7%—Es-2] (cluster III)—6.3±6.1%—[Es-1] (cluster I).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A new set of rat RI strains consisting of 11 independent strains and 13 of their substrains was established by inbreeding F2 rats between F344/DuCrj and LE/Stm. The strain distribution pattern was examined for 66 microsatellite loci, 8 biochemical genetic markers, 2 histocompatibility loci, and 2 coat color genes. A rat salivary protein gene Spe1 was newly mapped on Chr 1.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A new inbred strain JF1 (Japanese Fancy Mouse 1) was established from a strain of fancy mouse. Morphological and genetical analysis indicated that the mouse originated from the Japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus molossinus. JF1 has characteristic coat color, black spots on the white coat, with black eyes. The mutation appeared to be linked to an old mutation piebald (s). Characterization of the causative gene for piebald, endothelin receptor type B (ednrb), demonstrated that the allele in JF1 is same as that of classic piebald allele, suggesting an identical origin of these two mutants. Possibly, classic piebald mutation was introduced from the Japanese tame mouse, which was already reported at the end of the 1700s. We showed that JF1 is a useful strain for mapping of mutant genes on laboratory strains owing to a high level of polymorphisms in microsatellite markers between JF1 and laboratory strains. The clarified genotypes of JF1 for coat color are ``aa BB CC DD ss''.
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