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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 1 (1980), S. 117-129 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; 60 Hz ; biological effects ; dosimetry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Published and new data for grounded humans, swine, and rats exposed to vertical, 60-Hz electric fields are used to determine field strengths at the surfaces of the bodies and average components of induced-current density along the axes of the bodies. At the tops of the bodies, surface electric fields are increased (enhanced) over the unperturbed field strength present before the subjects entered the field by factors of 17,7, and 4 for humans, swine, and rats, respectively. For an unperturbed field strength of 10 kV/m, average induced axial current densities in the neck, chest, abdomen, and feet are: 550, 190, 250, and 2000 nA/cm2, respectively, for humans; 40, 13, 20, and 1100 nA/cm2, respectively, for swine; and 28, 16, 2, and 1400 nA/cm2, respectively, for rats. These data are used to show that the actual electric fields experienced by animals depend strongly on the shape of the body and its orientation relative to the electric field and ground plane. This fact must be taken into account if biological data obtained with laboratory animals are to be used for the assessment of possible hazards to humans exposed to 60-Hz electric fields.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 3 (1982), S. 443-451 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: miniature swine ; ELF ; 60-Hz electric field ; behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: It has been shown that rats, given the choice, will spend more time out of a 60-Hz electric field than in it at field strengths ≥ 75 kV/m. This paper describes research to examine the relevance of these data to a different species, the pig. Miniature pigs that had been exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 30 kV/m for 20 h/day, 7 days/week for as long as 6 months, were tested for their preference for the presence or absence of the field during a 23.5-h period. Similar to earlier results with rats, miniature pigs spent more time out of the electric field than in it during the sleeping period.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: Electric fields ; 60 Hz ; rats ; behavior ; gastrointestinal distress ; taste aversion ; behavior toxicolgy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A measure of taste-aversion (TA) learning was used in three experiments to 1) determine whether exposure to intense 60-Hz electric fields can produce TA learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and 2) establish a dose-response function for the behavior in question. In Experiment 1, four groups of eight rats each were distributed into one of two exposures (69 ± 5 kV/m or 133 ± 10 kV/m) or into one of two sham-exposure groups. Conditioning trials paired 0.1% sodium saccharin in water with 3 h of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. Following five conditioning trials, a 20-min, two-bottle preference test between water and saccharin-flavored water failed to reveal TA conditioning in exposed groups. In Experiment 2, four groups of eight rats each (34 ± 2 kV/m or 133 ± 10 kV/m and two sham-exposed groups) were treated as before. Electric-field exposure had no effect on TA learning. Experiment 3 tested for a possible synergy between a minimal dose (for TA learning) of cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg) and 5 h of exposure to 133 ± 10 kV/m electric fields in a dark environment under conditions otherwise similar to those of Experiments 1 and 2. The results indicated no TA learning as reflected in the relative consumption of saccharin.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: ELF ; electric fields ; exposure systems ; biological effects ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A system is described that uses an oscillating magnetic field to produce power-frequency electric fields with strengths in excess of those produced in an animal or human standing under a high-voltage electric-power transmission line. In contrast to other types of exposure systems capable of generating fields of this size, no electrodes are placed in the conducting growth media: the possibility of electrode contamination of the exposed suspension is thereby eliminated. Electric fields in the range 0.02-3.5 V/m can be produced in a cell culture with total harmonic distortions less than 1.5%. The magnetic field used to produce electric fields for exposure is largely confined within a closed ferromagnetic circuit, and experimental and control cells are exposed to leakage magnetic flux densities less than 5 μT. The temperatures of the experimental and control cell suspensions are held fixed within ±0.1°C by a water bath. Special chambers were developed to hold cell cultures during exposure and sham exposure. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells incubated in these chambers grew for at least 48 h and had population doubling times of 16-17 h, approximately the same as for CHO cells grown under standard cell-culture conditions.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: exposure assessment ; environmental magnetic fields ; residential magnetic fields ; epidemiological protocol ; wire codes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A study was carried out in 1990 to guide the development of a protocol for assessing residential exposures of children to time-weighted-average (TWA) power-frequency magnetic fields. The principal goal of this dosimetry study was to determine whether area (i.e., spot and/or 24 h) measurements of power-frequency magnetic fields in the residences and in the schools and daycare centers of 29 children (4 months through 8 years of age) could be used to predict their measured personal 24-h exposures. TWA personal exposures, measured with AMEX-3D meters worn by subjects, were approximately log-normally distributed with both residential and nonresidential geometric means of 0.10 μT (1.0 mG). Between-subjects variability in residential personal exposure levels (geometric standard deviation of 2.4) was substantially greater than that observed for nonresidential personal exposure levels (1.4). The correlation between log-transformed residential and total personal exposure levels was 0.97. Time-weighted averages of the magnetic fields measured in children's bedrooms, family rooms, living rooms, and kitchens were highly correlated with residential personal exposure levels (r = 0.90). In general, magnetic field levels measured in schools and daycare centers attended by subjects were smaller and less variable than measured residential fields and were only weakly correlated with measured nonresidential personal exposures. The final measurement protocol, which will be used in a large US study examining the relationship between childhood leukemia and exposure to magnetic fields, contains the following elements: normal- and low-power spot magnetic field measurements in bedrooms occupied by subjects during the 5 years prior to the date of diagnosis for cases or the corresponding date for controls; spot measurements under normal and low power-usage conditions at the centers of the kitchen and the family room; 24-h magnetic-field recordings near subjects' beds; and wire coding using the Wertheimer-Leeper method. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 16 (1995), S. 402-404 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Dr. Peter Valberg has written an excellent and clear paper describing our current understanding of the many facets of characterizing exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. Dr. Valberg has directed his paper to the characterization of exposures used in laboratory experimentation. In this context, it seems to me that Valberg's program of exposure characterization can be accomplished with currently available instrumentation and with relatively modest effort. Thus, I have no fundamental problems with his recommendations and, really, have only a few minor comments to make. However, if one argues that Valberg's recommendations should be extended to the characterization of exposure in epidemio-logical research, I have serious reservations, which I will mention briefly at the end of this commentary. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: electric fields ; hematology ; serum chemistry ; rats ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Numerous hematologic and serum chemistry variables were examined in rats exposed to unperturbed 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 15, 30, 60, or 120 days. Each study was replicated once. Rigorous statistical evaluations of these data did not detect any consistent effect of the electric field for exposures of up to 120 days. It was, however, not unusual in any individual study to detect certain variables that were significantly different between the exposed and shamexposed animals. This emphasizes the need for replicate designs and appropriate statistical analyses when investigating chemical or physical insults that may have minimal influence on biologic function.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 6 (1985), S. 13-32 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: dosimetry ; electric field ; ELF ; 60 Hz ; human ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: This paper gives current densities measured in homogeneous grounded human models exposed to vertical, 60-Hz electric fields. The methods used for these measurements were validated by measuring the current densities induced in a grounded hemisphere and in a grounded prolate hemispheroid; agreement between measurement and theory was good. For an unperturbed field strength of 10 kV/m, current densities measured in the human chest were in the range 125-300 nA/cm2. A strong horizontal current-density enhancement was observed in the axillae, with peak values of about 400 nA/cm2. The vertical current density in the arms, when held downward, was in the opposite direction to that in the chest. Current densities in the abdomen, pelvis, and legs were a strong function of whether the body was grounded through one or both feet. With one foot grounded, the horizontal current density in the lower pelvic region, just above the crotch, was 770 nA/cm2. This value was the largest of those measured in the head, arms, or torso of the human model. Scaling factors derived from these data and similar data for animals will provide a quantitative basis for comparing animal and human exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. In addition, current-density data given in this paper can be directly extrapolated to higher frequencies, at least to 1 MHz. These extrapolated data may be useful to individuals and groups involved in the determination of safety standards for the lower radiofrequency region.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: chronic exposure ; teratology ; reproduction ; growth ; embryotoxicity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Previous studies have raised the possibility of reproductive and developmental changes in miniature swine chronically exposed to a strong 60-Hz electric field. Two replicate experiments on rats were performed to determine if similar changes could be detected in animals exposed under a comparable regime, which was based on average, induced-current densities and on the chronology of reproductive development, as dosimetrically and biologically scaled. Beginning at three months of age, female rats of the F0 generation and their subsequent offspring were chronically exposed to a 60-Hz electric field (100 kV/ m unperturbed) for 19 h/day for the duration of experimentation.After four weeks of exposure, F0 female rats were mated to unexposed male rats during the field-off period. No significant developmental effects were detected in their litters, confirming our previous results with swine and rats. The F0 females were mated for a second time at 7.2 months of age, and the fetuses were evaluated shortly before term. In the first experiments, the incidence of intrauterine mortality was significantly less in exposed than in sham-exposed litters, and there was a tendency (P = 0.12) for an increased incidence of malformed fetuses in exposed litters. Neither end point was significantly affected in the second experiment.Copulatory behavior of the female F1 offspring, which were bred at three months of age, was not affected in either experiment. There was a statistically significant decrease in the fertility of F1 exposed females and a significant increase in the fraction of exposed litters with malformed fetuses in the first experiment; both end points were essentially the same in the sham and exposed groups of the second experiment.That the significant effects detected in the first experiment were not seen in the second may be attributed to random or biological variation. Alternatively, the finding may indicate that the response threshold for induction of malformations lies near 100 kV/m.
    Additional Material: 7 Tab.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Bioelectromagnetics 8 (1987), S. 315-335 
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: magnetic fields ; exposure assessment ; ELF ; power frequency ; epidemiology ; cancer ; residential ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A magnetic flux density (MFD) and electric-field (E-field) data-acquisition system was built for characterizing extremely low-frequency fields in residences. Every 2 min during 24-h periods, MFD and E-field measurements were made in 43 homes in King, Pierce, and Snohomish counties of Washington State. The total electrical energy used in each residence during the 24-h measurement period was also recorded, and maps were drawn to scale of the distribution wiring within 43 m (140 ft) of these homes. Finally, on a separate date, field measurements were made in each home during an epidemiological interview. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) 24-h-average MFD measured at two separate points in the family room were correlated, as were a 24-h-average bedroom measurement and the mean of the two family-room measurements. 2) The 24-h-average family-room MFD and E-field measurements were uncorrelated. 3) The 24-h-average total harmonic distortions of family-room MFD and E-fields were less than about 24% and 7%, respectively. 4) Residential MFD exhibited a definite 24-h (diurnal) cycle. 5) The 24-h-average and interviewer-measured MFD were correlated. 6) Residential 24-h-average MFD were correlated with the wiring code developed by Wertheimer and Leeper. 7) An improved prediction of 24-h-average residential MFD was obtained using the total number of service drops, the distance to neighboring transmission lines, and the number of primary phase conductors.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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