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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone DNA-binding protein that is secreted into the extracellular milieu in response to inflammatory stimuli. The secreted HMGB1 mediates various inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis; however, the underlying mechanisms of HMGB1-induced periodontal inflammation are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody inhibits periodontal progression and investigated the molecular pathology of HMGB1 in vitro and in vivo. In vitro analysis indicated that HMGB1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were secreted in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimuli in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) treated with phorbol myristate acetate. Increased levels of GM-CSF and IL-1β were observed in the conditioned media from TNF-α-stimulated HGECs and THP-1 in vitro . Simultaneous stimulation with TNF-α and anti-HMGB1 antibody significantly decreased TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion. Experimental periodontitis was induced in mice using Porphyromonas gingivalis -soaked ligatures. The extracellular translocation was confirmed in gingival epithelia in the periodontitis model mice by immunofluorescence analysis. Systemic administration of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody significantly inhibited translocation of HMGB1. The anti-HMGB1 antibody inhibited periodontal inflammation, expression of IL-1β and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), migration of neutrophils, and bone resorption, shown by bioluminescence imaging of myeloperoxidase activity, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and micro-computed tomography analysis. These findings indicate that HMGB1 is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli caused by periodontal infection, which is crucial for the initiation of periodontitis, and the anti-HMGB1 antibody attenuates the secretion of a series of inflammatory cytokines, consequently suppressing the progression of periodontitis.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Computer simulation ; Intravenous injection ; Radioactive tracer ; Transfer function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A method for solving the convolution-type integral equation $$y(t) = \int\limits_0^t x (t - t'){\mathbf{ }}h{\mathbf{ }}(t'){\mathbf{ }}dt'$$ is introduced from the analogy of the synthetic kernel approximation used in the analytical approach of the neutron slowing down problem. The method is chosen to find h(t), the transfer function, in the case where the values of the given data x(t) for the input of the system remain large during the sampling range and decrease almost monoexponentially at a sufficiently large t (time), which is usually the case with the intravenous injection of radioactive tracers. The accuracy of the method is examined using computer simulations. In these simulations, any smoothing technique is applied except for the determination of the analytical representation for the dominant part of x(t), which is called ‘the trend’ in this paper. It was found out that there was a possibility of obtaining transfer functions with accurate mean time value even when the given data x(t) and y(t) have large statistical fluctuations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The preparation of no-carrier-added28Mg from a pure Al target irradiated by an α-particle beam has been developed for biological tracer use. The28Mg was purified, by successive extraction and ion exchange chromatography. One hour irradiations at 5 μA of 50 MeV α-particles gave approximately 2 μCi of no-carrier-added and practically salt-free28Mg with high radionuclidic purities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient with a new variant of multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSDv) is reported. Unlike the usual type, onset was late and progress was slow. The phenotypic changes were those usually seen in multiple sulphatase deficiency but much milder. Cytoplasmic accumulations were found in skin fibroblasts, and urinary mucopolysaccharides and sulphatides were high. Arylsulphatases A, B and C (ASA, B and C), heparan N-sulphatase sulphoiduronate sulphatase, andN-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphatase all had low activity in lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts. Complementation for ASA activity was found in hybrids between MSDv and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) as well as between multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSD) and MLD. Complementation for ASC activity was also seen in hybrids between MSDv and X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), and between MSD and XLI. However, neither ASA nor ASC activity increased in hybrid cells of MSDv and MSD. These results suggested that the mutations of MSDv and of MSD were allelic, although of different phenotypes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-7799
    Keywords: Key words: Hemodialysis ; Survival analysis ; Cerebrovascular disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. The overall survival rate and contributory factors were examined in patients undergoing hemodialysis in one dialysis program. The clinical profiles of dialysis patients who suffered from cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) were also studied. Methods. Data were available for 1064 patients who had received hemodialysis treatment for more than 3 months in our program (17 centers) in Miyazaki, Japan, between 1971 and 1994. Results. The respective 3-, 5-, and 10-year actuarial survival rates were 85%, 79%, and 66%. The Cox proportional hazard model identified three variables: age at start of hemodialysis (adjusted relative hazard [RH], 1.05), sex (RH, 1.42 for males), and type of underlying renal disease (RH, 1.00 for chronic glomerulonephritis, 2.80 for diabetes mellitus, 1.59 for nephrosclerosis), as being significantly associated with survival. Patients with CCVD had a high incidence of cerebral hemorrhage (8.7 per 1000 person-years). Patients whose first CCVD episode occurred within 36 months of starting hemodialysis were older, and more frequently had diabetes mellitus or nephrosclerosis and suffered from cerebral infarction. Long-term hemodialysis patients with CCVD more frequently had chronic glomerulonephritis as the underlying disease and had a higher incidence of cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion. Age, sex, and underlying renal disease were independent factors that contributed to the mortality of the hemodialysis patients. There was a high incidence of CCVD among the hemodialysis patients, but the etiology of CCVD may differ depending on the underlying renal disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract • Background: Since Brockhurst reported the connection between uveal effusion in nanophthalmic eyes and their scleral alterations and treated them with vortex vein decompression or sclerectomy, many observers have found abnormal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) in nanophthalmic sclera. These GAG abnormalities were thought to effect the collagen changes, though it was not clear which GAGs were changed. • Methods: GAGs were isolated and their contents were determined in scleral specimens from three nanophthalmic patients and five age-matched controls, using electrophoresis and the cetylpyridinium method. • Results: Hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were the major GAGs in both nanophthalmic and control samples. Nanophthalmic sclera showed 2.4-fold, 10-fold and 5.5-fold increases in hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, respectively, compared with the controls. • Conclusion: The results suggest that increased levels of GAGS, particularly of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate may contribute to the abnormalities of collagen fibrillogenesis and be closely involved with the pathogenesis of nanophthalmos.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Thermal decomposition of two types of graphite fluorides (CF) n and (CF) n , has been carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere at several temperatures between 100 and 500°C, with the object of improving the initial discharge behaviour of the Li/graphite flouride cell. The main reaction was the C-F bond rupture to form graphite-like carbon around the particle surface. The drop in cell voltage at the beginning of discharge could be minimized, and the polarization during discharge reduced by heat treatment under a hydrogen atmosphere. (CF) n , heat treated at 400°C for 1 h, yielded a discharge capacity of 730–800 mA h per g of active material, corresponding to the discharge efficiency of 83∼90% at 25°C, and (C2F) n , heat treated at 350°C, for 10h, gave 670 mA h g−1, corresponding to 91 % at 25°C.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We have carried research for the electrical properties of the superconducting micro-contact junction made of Y−Ba−Cu−O thin film. Y−Ba−Cu−O thin film was deposited on SrTiO3 substrate by using the RF magnetron sputtering methode. Under 70GHz millimeter wave radiation, we observed the bolometric response by use of the fabricated micro-contact junctions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The anisotropy of high Tc superconducting oxides such as Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 is analized by use of the multi-CuO2-layer structure model. It is found that the anisotropy decreases when Tc increases. Under high pressure, the anisotropy also decreases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A new technology for the production of highly concentrated aqueous formaldehyde was developed by oxidizing methylal. Whereas the oxidation of methanol yields 1 mol of water per 1 mol of formaldehyde, methylal oxidation produces only 1 mol of water for every 3 mol of formaldehyde. Thus, the output from methylal oxidation is more than 70% formaldehyde compared with 55% from methanol oxidation. For this purpose, basic research for methylal synthesis was tried and the world's first commercial production of methylal was accomplished. Using this methylal, the world's first technology of methylal oxidation for manufacturing highly concentrated aqueous formaldehyde was established by development of a new methylal oxidation catalyst composed of iron, molybdenum, and a third component. This highly concentrated aqueous formaldehyde is then fed to the acetal homopolymer and copolymer plant whose combined capacity is 35,000 tons/years. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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