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  • 1
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; human ; IN-VIVO ; LUNG ; VITRO ; SYSTEM ; DNA adducts ; TISSUE ; MICE ; DNA ; 3-aminobenzanthrone ; 3-nitrobenzanthrone ; CARCINOGENESIS ; DIESEL EXHAUST ; ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; POSTLABELING ANALYSIS ; RAT ; RATS ; TISSUES ; METABOLITES ; IDENTIFICATION ; HUMAN ACETYLTRANSFERASES ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; MUTAGENICITY ; rodent ; PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY ; SURFACE SOIL ; V79 CELLS ; RE ; air pollution ; ENZYME ; P-32-postlabeling ; in vivo ; DEOXYGUANOSINE ; LIQUID ; P-32-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS ; xanthine oxidase
    Abstract: 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and potential human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and ambient air particulate matter. Previously, we detected the formation of 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts in rodent tissues by P-32-postlabeling, all of which are derived from reductive metabolites of 3-NBA bound to purine bases, but structural identification of these adducts has not yet been reported. We have now prepared 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct standards for P-32-postlabeling by reacting N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Aco-ABA) with purine nucleotides. Three deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts have been characterised as N-(2'-deoxy-guanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dG3'p-C8-N-ABA), 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N-2 -yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dG3'p-N-2-ABA) and 2-2'-(deoxygtianosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dG3'p-C8-C2-ABA), and a deoxyadenosine (dA) adduct was characterised as 2-(2'-deoxyadenosm-N-6-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone-3'-phosphate (dA3'p-N-6-ABA). 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts formed experimentally in vivo and in vitro were compared with the chemically synthesised adducts. The major 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formed in rat lung cochromatographed with dG3'p-N-2-ABA in two independent systems (thin layer and high-performance liquid chromatography). This is also the major adduct formed in tissue of rats or mice treated with 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), the major human metabolite of 3-NBA. Similarly, dG3'p-C8-N-ABA and dA3'p-N-6-ABA cochromatographed with two other adducts formed in various organs of rats or mice treated either with 3-NBA or 3-ABA, whereas dG3'p-C8-C2-ABA did not cochromatograph with my of the adducts found in vivo. Utilizing different enzymatic systems in vitro, including human hepatic microsomes and cytosols, and purified and recombinant enzymes, we found that a variety of enzymes [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, xanthine oxidase, NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, cytochrome P450s 1A1 and 1A2, N,O-acetyltransferases 1 and 2, sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2, and myeloperoxidase] are able to catalyse the formation of 2-(2-deoxyguanosin-N-2-yl)3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N-6-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone in DNA, after incubation with 3-NBA and/or 3-ABA. (c) 2005Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0167-5087
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle vibration ; Spindle afferents ; Elbow movement ; Forearm muscle ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of forearm muscle tendon vibration during alternating step flexion-extension movements about the elbow was studied in normal humans. In one experiment, a vibrator was mounted over either the forearm flexor or the extensor muscle. In a second experiment, a vibrator was mounted over either the forearm muscle or the biceps muscle. In both experiments, vibration was applied either to a single muscle or simultaneously to both muscles during elbow flexion-extension movements. After a period of practice, subjects learned the required movements and were able to make them with their eyes closed. Application of vibration to the forearm and the biceps muscle during extension movements produced an undershoot of the required end movement position. Moreover, application of high frequency vibration (100 Hz) to the forearm extensor and flexor muscle produced an overshoot of the required end-movement position. The observed results are consistent with vibration induced activation of muscle spindle receptors not only in the lengthening muscle during movement but also in the forearm muscles. It is suggested that the pattern of distribution of muscle spindle afferent from the forearm muscle onto α-motoneurons of muscles acting at the elbow has played an important role of alternating step flexion-extension movements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The neutralization reaction of Japanese encephalitis virus with early serum was compared with that with late serum. The analysis of antiserum by Sephadex G200 gel filtration indicated that the neutralizing activity in early serum was present only in the IgM fraction, while that in late serum was present only in the IgG fraction. The antibody dose response curves in early serum were characterized by the early and high appearance of a persistent fraction. This fraction was found to consist of an infectious virus antibody complex (sensitized virus) which was neutralized by anti-IgM serum. The amount of virus neutralized by anti-IgM serum varied with the concentration of antiviral antibody employed for the sensitization. In contrast, it was a characteristic of the neutralization by late serum that the residual infectivity was inversely related to the concentration of antibody in the serum, resulting in a low level of a non-neutralized virus fraction. Therefore, the maximal reduction of residual infectivity by anti-IgG serum was attained under an optimal ratio of antibody to virus. Virus sensitized with early serum had a blocking effect against a high concentration of late serum antibody, but was neutralized by anti-IgM serum. Virus sensitized with an insufficient amount of late serum antibody was neutralized not only by high concentrations of late serum antibody, but also was supersensitized by early serum antibody. Since the sensitized virus which had been adsorbed on host cells was still neutralizable by anti-γ-globulin, aggregation seemed to be excluded as the main factor in the mechanism of neutralization by anti-γ-globulin serum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of virology 48 (1975), S. 359-366 
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of anti-cellular rabbit serum (ACRS) on the neutralization of sensitized Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by anti-rabbit IgG serum was examined to elucidate the interaction between virus-antibody complex and the surface of the host cells during the process of neutralization. ACRS had no effect on the adsorption of either sensitized or non-sensitized virus, but was able to restore the lost infectivity of sensitized virus which occurred during the process of neutralization by anti-rabbit IgG serum. This restoration of infectivity was found to take place not only by the addition of ACRS to the reaction mixtures (virus-antibody, anti-rabbit IgG complex) but also by pretreatment of the host cells with ACRS. Although the restoration of lost infectivity varied in magnitude with the concentration of ACRS used, it never exceeded the infectivity titer of the sensitized virus before incubation with anti-rabbit IgG serum. This result suggests that ACRS has no ability to reverse the neutralization by anti-viral serum. Since the ACRS reacted only with anti-rabbit IgG serum treated sensitized virus, resulting in an increase of the number of infectious centers, the restoration of lost infectivity was explained as being due to the enhancement of adsorption of sensitized virus to the host cells by bridge formation of anti-rabbit IgG antibody between them.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of virology 57 (1978), S. 123-132 
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cells infected with echovirus or poliovirus were incubated at a suboptimal temperature (28° C). When the cells were examined by electron microscopy, not only were crystalline arrays of mature virus particles observed in the cytoplasm but crystals composed of immature virus-like particles were also evident in the less electron-dense central region of the nucleus. Immunofluorescent and autoradiographic studies revealed the presence of viral proteins and RNA in the nucleus. These findings strongly suggest that the intranuclear crystals are composed of incomplete virus particles and that crystal formation at such a low temperature may be a remarkable feature common to picornaviruses. Possible mechanisms for the intranuclear synthesis of viral constituents are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Analysis of poliovirus antibody complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation demonstrated differences in behavior of sensitized virus between early and late serum, particularly with regard to neutralizing capacity of different concentrations of antiserum.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Basement membrane ; glomerulus ; isolation ; detergent ; Glomerulus ; Basalmembran ; Isolierungsmethode ; Detergens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Voraussetzung zur Untersuchung der glomerulären chemischen Zusammensetzung ist, eine möglichst reine Darstellung der Basalmembran in ausreichender Menge zu erhalten. Um die glomeruläre Basalmembran zu isolieren, werden die Glomerula mit 0.08 % Polyoxyäthylen-sorbitan-monooleat schwach homogenisiert. Die so gewonnene Glomerulumsuspension wird auf einen Saccharosedichtgradienten überschichtet. Nach ca. 1/2 Stunde entsteht eine Dreischichtung. In der untersten dritten Schicht ist die Basalmembran enthalten. Aus dem Vergleich mit den verschiedenen chemischen Analysenwerten und auch aus dem Befund von elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen ist die durch das Detergens gewonnene Basalmembran gut anwendbar, um weitere chemische Forschungen durchzuführen.
    Notes: Summary In order to obtain pure glomerular basement membrane for chemical analysis, we could develop the following method. The isolated glomeruli are treated with a 0.08 % polyoxyethylene-sorbitane-monooleate for 3–5 minutes and they are homogenized in this detergent. The homogenate obtained is placed in a sucrose gradient with the specific density between 1021 to 1081. After standing for 30 minutes in a refrigator, the homogenate was separated into three layers. The uppermost layer contained fragmented cell debris, the second layer was consisted of the endothelial and epithelial cells. In the third layer, which was clearly separated from upper two layers by the translucent zone, the basement membrane were found. The position of the third layer is different in normal and pathological glomeruli, and the width of the layer is very narrow. According to this method only a very little contamination with other glomerular cell fraction is observed. The application of the 0.08 % polyoxyethylene-sorbitane-monooleate did not induce any appreciable change in the structure of basement membrane, because carbohydrate composition and sialic acid content of this preparation were essentially identical with the data reported by several authors who prepared basement membrane by ultrasonic method. Electron microscope also revealed that the isolated glomerular basement membrane preserved lamina densa completely attached with partly stripped lamina rara interna and externa. Our method to break glomeruli is inexpensive and less time-consuming than the breakage with ultrasonic vibration. Isolation procedure with density gradient is obviously superior to the simple centrifugation or settling method adopted by others.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 1359-0197
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0022-2828
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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