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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Key words Experimental diabetes ; Albuminuria ; Glomerular metabolism ; ACE inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical studies indicate a nephro-protective effect in conjunction with the use of ACE inhibitors. This study's aim was to determine whether ACE inhibitors influence the metabolism of glomerular cells in addition to their known hemodynamic effects. Streptozotocin diabetic rats were treated with lisinopril (DLis 1.5 mg/l water), or hydralazine (Dhyd, 50 mg/l water) over 4 weeks. Untreated diabetic rats (DC) and non-diabetic rats (C) served as controls. After four weeks of treatment, urinary excretion of albumin, blood pressure and metabolic control (Glyc-Hb) were measured. After treatment glomeruli were isolated and homogenized, and β-NAG and total proteolytic activity against azocasein were measured. Glycated hemoglobin levels were similar in all diabetic groups (DC, 12%, Dhyd, 10%; DLis 11%). Blood pressure of DLis rats (79 ± 3 mmHg) and DHyd rats (46 ± 2 mmHg) was lower than that of DC rats (111 ± 3 mmHg). Urinary albumin excretion of diabetic groups was lowest in DLis. Diabetic rats showed a decrease in glomerular β-NAG (10 vs. 60.5 U/g protein) and total proteolytic activity against azocasein (148 vs. 170 U/mg protein hour) compared to non-diabetic rats. Lisinopril increased β-NAG (30 vs. 14 U/g protein) and total proteolytic activity (160.5 vs. 141.5 U/mg protein hour) compared with hydralazine. Our study confirms that the nephro-protective effect of ACE inhibitors is partially due to modulatory effects on the metabolism of basement membrane proteins.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Renin-agiotensin-system ; Diabetes ; Glomerular basement membrane ; Glomerular mesangium ; ACE inhibitors ; Proteinuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Apart from near normal metabolic control, early treatment of an increase in blood pressure in diabetic patients with nephropathy, is one of the most important therapeutic methods to prevent further progression of this complication. Long-term studies, recently published, suggest that ACE inhibitors have a beneficial effect on albuminuria and progression of nephropathy, irrespective of their hemodynamic effects. However, the mechanism by which ACE inhibitors exert these positive effects on glomerular pathology is still unclear. Several non-hemodynamic factors have been identified as being involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy: (a) changes in the composition of glomerular basement membrane due to a changed metabolism of the proteins which make up this structure; consequences are an impairment of the filtration properties, onset of proteinuria as well as thickening of basement membrane; (b) Mesangial expansion due to an overproduction of mesangial matrix and deposition of proteins as well as (c) impairment of mesangial clearance function; consequences are development of glomerulosclerosis and reduction of filtration surface. It is known that the renin-angiotensin-system is stimulated in diabetic patients with nephropathy and that angiotensin II influences the synthesis of glomerular and mesangial proteins as well as the function of mesangial cells. Hypothetically, these points could explain the beneficial effects of ACE-inhibitors on the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; proteinuria ; lipids ; blood pressure ; metabolic control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Decline of kidney function with time and its influencing factors were investigated in the present longitudinal study in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with clinical diabetic nephropathy. Compared to a control group of Type 2 diabetic patients without proteinuria, the proteinuric patients showed a higher prevalence of hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure values and serum triglyceride levels. The annual loss of glomerular kidney function was much higher in the proteinuric patients (5.3 ml·min−1·1.73 m2) than in the control subjects (0.9 ml·min−1·1.73 m2). Correlation analyses revealed a close correlation between the annual decrease of kidney function and the factors, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and postprandial blood glucose level as well as body mass index. Regression analyses showed for the first time that in addition to the systolic blood pressure and metabolic control, the triglyceride level is also an independent factor influencing the progression of nephropathy. Higher values of these parameters were associated with a more rapid deterioration of kidney function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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