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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The parasite, Anguillicola crassus is a non-native species that infects naive European eels, Anguilla anguilla, and causes pathological damage to the swimbladder, potentially compromising their ability to cope with hypoxic conditions. This study aimed to elucidate whether anguillicolosis exacerbates the stress responses to exposure to hypoxic water, conditions that have been implicated in mass mortalities of wild infected European eels. Blood parameters in infected and uninfected eels were measured during exposure to severe hypoxia over an 8-h period. Infected fish showed significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol compared with uninfected eels after 4 h of hypoxia. Uninfected fish showed an almost twofold increase in plasma glucose after 8-h exposure to hypoxia but infected fish showed no significant change, so that the plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in uninfected eels than in infected eels. Both groups showed similar elevations in blood haematocrit, suggesting a similar catecholamine response in infected and uninfected eels. The lack of a hyperglycaemic response in infected eels, despite indirect evidence of a catecholamine response to hypoxia, may reflect an increase in glucose turnover. The data suggest that anguillicolosis results in a significantly greater corticosteroid stress response to hypoxia accompanied by a higher metabolic cost.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 196 (1962), S. 494-495 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1. Archigetes appendiculatus in the genital segments of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Both host and parasite are sexually mature, eggs being clearly visible in the uterus of the parasite. Note the separation of the vitellaria into four distinct lobes, (x c. 17) At present we are collecting ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Helminth community composition and richness were studied in brown trout, Salmo trutta, in 10 reservoirs of broadly similar age and characteristics situated close to each other in a well-defined region of south-west England. Communities were compared using cluster and ordination analyses, and possible correlations between helminth richness and a number of environmental variables were investigated. The hypothesis that the helminth communities should show high degrees of similarity and that large differences between reservoirs and a high degree of clustering would be unrecognizable was refuted. Levels of community similarity were low and comparable to those determined for helminths in salmonids in natural lakes. Trout in some reservoirs exhibited very distinctive helminth faunas and clustering of reservoirs was apparent. No single factor, including reservoir size and presence of piscivorous birds, had a predominant influence on community richness or composition but rather a multiplicity of local factors was believed to influence these parameters. The results indicate that local factors promoting distinctiveness have a greater influence on the composition and richness of fish helminth communities in lakes and reservoirs than do regional factors promoting similarity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The occurrence of Phyllodistomum folium in a population of eels was studied throughout one year. Abundance exhibited a summer peak. Gravid adults were found in all months, indicating that eels can serve as a definitive host for this parasite.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Seasonal population dynamics of Puraquzmperia tenerrima (Linstow) in the European eel Anguillu anguillu (Linnaeus) have been investigated in three localities in Devon, southwest England. The nematode is common and exhibits very similar seasonal patterns in changes of prevalence and abundance in the three localities. The population increases over winter through to late spring or early summer as the recruitment of the new generation occurs throughout this period. Reproduction of the nematode starts in spring. A sharp decrease of prevalence and abundance accompanies or follows reproduction, and infection levels are very low in autumn and early winter. The dispersion pattern of the nematode varies with the infection levels from over-dispersion in spring and early summer to almost random dispersion in autumn and winter. It is suggested that P. tenerrimu is a common specific parasite of eels, especially in small streams or rivers and that insect larvae or species of crustaceans might serve as intermediate hosts for the nematode.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An experimental epidemiological approach was chosen to study the survival and infection dynamics of Gyrodactylus salaris on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in the laboratory. A marked heterogeneity in the host stock was apparent. The rainbow trout could be divided into three groups on the basis of parasite survival and infection pattern on individually isolated fish: (1) hosts receptive to initial parasite attachment, but unreceptive to parasite establishment and reproduction; (2) hosts moderately susceptible to parasite establishment and reproduction, but which, after a period of restricted parasite population growth, responded, recovered and eliminated the parasites; and (3) hosts very susceptible to parasite infection and reproduction, but which, after a period of significant parasite population growth, responded, recovered and eliminated the parasites. These different patterns are considered to reflect genetic differences between host individuals. Parasite aggregation was also shown to be an important factor in the outcome of the host-parasite association. The parasites were finally eliminated on the individually isolated hosts, but not on hosts maintained in batches and so host population size and immigration of fresh. previously unexposed, hosts appeared to be important for growth and maintenance of the parasite population. The parasite was not found to cause host mortality. Rainbow trout was a suitable host for G. salaris, capable of transmitting the parasite to new localities as a consequence of stocking programmes or migratory behaviour.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 35 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Investigations into the biology of the roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), and Ligula intestinalis (L.) populations at Slapton Ley, Devon were carried out between October 1982 and December 1984, and additional data collected from the lake since 1977 have been re-analysed. The Ligula population exhibited some unusual features: a limited specificity, a persistently low abundance and a scarcity of multiple infections. The population dynamics of the roach were also unusual in that the individual growth rate was one of the fastest in Britain, the survival was very poor and the year classes tended to alternate in strength. Whether the unusual epidemiology of Ligula could be explained by the unusual population dynamics of the roach is investigated.The transmission period of Ligula to the roach was limited to their first few months of life, probably due to a limited period of feeding on copepods by the fry. This narrow transmission window was almost certainly the major factor that has prevented the abundance of Ligula plerocercoids attaining high levels in the fry or of increasing in subsequent years, and has resulted in their abundance being determined entirely by transmission events to the fry. The limited transmission period has also caused the life-cycles of the roach and Ligula populations to become synchronized. At other localities, the abundance of Ligula is typically high, and can have a significant effect on the mortality of the host population, but, with the low abundance at Slapton, Ligula-induced roach mortality was insignificant. The rapid growth of the roach fry was the most likely explanation for the limited period of feeding on copepods, and the large size, short life-span and low abundance of the roach probably also constrained the build-up of the Ligula population in the lake. The random frequency distribution and scarcity of multiple infections was not considered unusual in view of the very low plerocercoid abundance. The very low abundance of Ligula, the separation of the spawning of roach and rudd in time and space, and the scarcity of rudd may account for the absence of infection in this species. It was concluded that the Ligula population in Slapton Ley was being constrained by the atypical population dynamics of the roach, and not vice versa as theory predicts.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Annual changes in the population size of the metacercariae of Tylodelphys podicipina in the eyes of perch in a small eutrophic lake were studied over ten years by following changes in prevalence, abundance and overdispersion of parasites throughout the life of each year class of fish. The population increased rapidly in the first two years after its introduction to the lake, but for the next six years fluctuated within very narrowly constrained limits before declining as a result of a catastrophic decline in the perch population. No evidence of parasite-induced host mortality was found: the decline in parasite abundance throughout the life of each year class was due to density-independent parasite mortality within the fish as a result of natural variation in the life span of the metacercariae. Levels of infection in the first year of a year class were determined principally by transmission processes, as transmission could only occur over a very brief period when release of cercariae from parent generation snails coincided with the presence of perch fry. Transmission appeared to be density-independent, and infection levels in perch to be determined by the dimensions of the transmission’ window’ and subsequently modified by parasite mortality. No evidence of host responses or any other regulatory factor of fish origin was found, and the infrapopulations in perch appear to be non-equilibrial and unstable. Although the possibility of regulatory processes acting on infrapopulations of the parasite in other hosts remains, the importance of transmission windows in determining infrapopulation levels in fish is emphasized.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A number of parameters were measured in a population of perch whose numbers had declined steeply in a habitat subjected to increasing eutrophication, and these measurements were compared with those taken before the population decline. Contrary to expectation, no adaptive responses were identified. The growth rate of perch up to the age of III had only declined slightly, and there was a marked preponderance of young fish. Relative growth rate was consistent despite the population decline. No dominant year class was apparent. Mean instantaneous mortality rate and annual survival rate were calculated, and the length-weight relationship was analysed. Feeding strategy had not altered since an earlier study. A decline was seen in the percentage of perch maturing at early age. Ripeness coefficients and fecundity estimates were calculated. A previously documented spawning migration was confirmed. The absence of the expected adaptive changes is discussed.
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