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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus ; drug interaction ; phenprocoumon ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; sulphonylureas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of various antidiabetic treatments on the kinetics and efficacy of a single oral dose of 12 mg phenprocoumon were studied in 71 hospitalized patients, 58 with adult-onset diabetes mellitus and 13 non-diabetic aged patients, and 13 healthy young volunteers. Treatment for one week or longer with insulin or the antidiabetic sulphonylureas tolbutamide, glibenclamide or glibornuride, altered neither the plasma level (1.29 – 1.40 µg/ml at zero time) nor the half-life of phenprocoumon (5.2 – 6.8 d) compared to treatment by diet alone. The mean half-life of phenprocoumon was significantly shorter in non-diabetic aged patients (4.2 d) than in diabetic patients of the same age (5.1 – 6.8 d), or in young healthy volunteers (5.7 d). The efficacy of a single dose of phenprocoumon (maximal reduction of Quick-values by 34 – 47% after 48 to 72 hrs) in diabetic patients treated with diet, or diet and antidiabetic drugs, was the same as in non-diabetic aged patients. In healthy young volunteers phenprocoumon was half as effective as in aged patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Reserpine ; cancer ; mammary gland ; women ; benign breast disease ; hypertension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Exposure to reserpine was compared in 181 women interviewed prior to biopsy and found to have breast cancer and 307 women found to have a benign disorder of the breast. The age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer in those who had taken reserpine was 0.6 (95% confidence limits: 0.4 and 1.1). When the 181 breast cancer patients were compared with a second control group of 101 women with a benign condition requiring surgery, the relative risk was 0.9 (95% confidence limits: 0.4 and 1.7). Neither long-term exposure nor its timing, gave any evidence of an association with breast cancer. The findings in this study do not support the hypothesis that rauwolfia derivatives initiate or promote breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hydrochlorthiazide ; chlorthalidon ; furosemide ; adverse reaction ; plasma cholesterol ; plasma triglycerides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fasting level of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was increased by 30 to 50% in 12 healthy male volunteers treated with daily oral doses of hydrochlorothiazide 100 mg, chlorthalidone 100 mg or furosemide 80 mg for 3 weeks in a cross-over trial. Hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone, but not furosemide, caused a 10% increase in cholesterol in the low density lipoproteins (LDL), whereas triglycerides and phospholipids in this fraction remained unchanged. High density lipoproteins (HDL) were not affected by any of the diuretics. Free palmitic and oleic acid in plasma were also increased during the treatment, perhaps because of an accumulation of cyclic 3′5′-AMP due either to the inhibitory action of diuretics on phosphodiesterase, or to secondary activation of the sympathetic nervous systems. This would activate lipolysis in fat tissue, which in turn may induce VLDL synthesis in the liver. Each of the diuretics caused a similar rise of 20 to 30% in the mean plasma uric acid, the which could not be correlated with either triglycerides or cholesterol. Plasma sodium was increased by 2% only by furosemide, whereas potassium was decreased by 15 and 19% by hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone, respectively, but not by furosemide. Mean plasma creatinine rose by 3.5% on treatment with furosemide, and by 6% with the other two diuretics. Mean body weight was reduced by 1,4 to 2,0% during treatment. No change in fasting blood sugar, plasma protein level or hematocrit was found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: adverse drug reactions ; digitalis intoxication ; antibiotic reactions ; drug utilization ; hospital admissions ; clinical adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A comparative study of adverse drug reactions (ADR) leading to hospital admission showed that 103 (4.1%) out of 2499 medical admissions in Jerusalem and 167 (5.7%) out of 2933 admissions in Berlin were due to such reactions. Sex distribution in the two patient — populations was almost equal but the Jerusalem patients were younger. The most frequent ADRs were digitalis intoxication (in Berlin) and reactions to antibiotics (in Jerusalem). Other important differences were noted in the relative frequencies of ADRs associated anticoagulants, hypoglycemic agents and oral contraceptives. They were probably related to differences in drug usage in the two countries. The most common major side effects were arrhythmias, allergic reactions, bleeding, congestive heart failure, bronchospasm and hypoglycemia. The following risk factors were identified in both cities: old age, female sex, impaired renal function, previous history of ADR and polypragmasia.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: cyclosporin A ; diltiazem ; pharmacokinetics ; kidney transplantation ; drug metabolism ; cytochrome P-450 ; drug interactions ; human liver microsomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Previous reports have indicated that administration of the calcium antagonist diltiazem results in major changes in the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A (CyA). A new clinical trial was undertaken in 22 renal transplant patients receiving a constant dose of cyclosporin to further explore this interaction. Coadministration of diltiazem for one week produced an increase in the blood concentration of CyA and its metabolites 17 and 18 in almost all patients, but no increase in CyA metabolites 1 and 21. The mean whole blood CyA trough level determined by HPLC rose from 117 ng·ml−1 to 170 ng·ml−1 after one week on diltiazem, and the mean trough level of metabolite 17 rose similarly from 184 ng·ml−1 before to 336 ng·ml−1. Based on experiments with microsomes from human liver the effect of diltiazem was due to noncompetitve inhibition of CyA-metabolism by diltiazem, and the increased concentration of metabolite 17 might have been due to stronger inhibition of its secondary metabolism steps.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Dose-response relationship ; tolbutamide ; glibenclamide ; diabetes mellitus ; intravenous glucose test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using a new procedure to study the dose-response relationships of sulphonylureas, the effects of tolbutamide and glibenclamide on blood sugar and serum insulin have been examined in 9 diabetic patients. Particular changes sought in serum insulin were alteration in the two initial peaks, elevation of basal levels and augmentation of the response to glucose infusions. In general, both sulphonylureas had identical effects and glibenclamide was not superior to tolbutamide. In 3 or 4 obese patients the first of the two initial insulin peaks was as high as in healthy volunteers, whereas the second peak was diminished; both initial peaks were greatly reduced in non-obses patients. The basal level of insulin was elevated in only one patient after glibenclamide. The response of insulin levels to glucose infusions was not increased in any patient and was actually inhibited by glibenclamide in one case. Tolbutamide produced its maximal effects after a dose of 1.0 g, glibenclamide after 1 mg. Blood sugar levels declined more rapidly in patients with latent diabetes than in those with the overt disease. In two of the latter, the fall in blood sugar was not associated with a corresponding increase in serum insulin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 60 (1956), S. 261-263 
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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