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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  GMDS 2013; 58. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie e.V. (GMDS); 20130901-20130905; Lübeck; DOCAbstr.60 /20130827/
    Publication Date: 2013-08-28
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; tumor ; Germany ; KINASE ; GENERATION ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; MICE ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; BINDING ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; SUPPRESSION ; ALPHA ; CLEAVAGE ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; activation-induced cell death ; CELL-DEATH ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; BETA ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; sensitization ; TCR ; KAPPA-B ; sensitivity ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; IMMUNOLOGICAL SYNAPSE ; T lymphocytes ; CD95 ; signaling ; PROGRAM ; RE ; INCREASE ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; cell death ; ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ; HPK1 ; progenitor ; INDUCE ; NEGATIVE REGULATION ; SWITCH ; AICD ; CD28 COSTIMULATION ; HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR KINASE-1 ; IKK ; KINASE-C-THETA
    Abstract: Restimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) in activated T cells induces CD95 (Fas/Apo-1)-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD). The TCR-proximal mechanisms leading to AICD are elusive. Here we characterize hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) as a differentially regulated TCR-proximal signaling protein involved in AICD of primary T cells. We show that HPK1 is a functional component of the endogenous I kappa B kinase (IKK) complex and is crucial for TCR-mediated NF kappa B activation. While full-length HPK1 enhances IKK beta phosphorylation, siRNA-mediated knockdown of HPK1 blunts TCR-mediated NF kappa B activation and increases cell death. We also demonstrate proteolytic processing of HPK1 into HPK1-C, specifically in AICD-sensitive primary T cells. The cleavage product HPK1-C sequesters the inactive IKK complex and suppresses NF kappa B upon TCR restimulation by binding to IKK alpha and IKK beta. T cells of HPK1-C transgenic mice are sensitized towards TCR-mediated AICD. Consequently, preventing HPK1-C generation in primary T cells by siRNA-mediated knockdown results in decreased AICD. Thus, these results show a novel mechanism of sensitization of T lymphocytes towards AICD by suppression of NF kappa B, and propose that HPK1 is a life/death switch in T lymphocytes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16341093
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; BLOOD ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; MICE ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; FAMILY ; primary ; INDUCTION ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; CD95 ligand ; CELL-DEATH ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; B-CELLS ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; Bcl-2 ; molecular ; MOLECULAR-BASIS ; RE ; FAMILIES ; LIFE ; LEVEL ; cell death ; ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ; progenitor ; SUPPRESSOR ; FAS LIGAND ; AICD ; HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR KINASE-1 ; USA ; B-LYMPHOCYTES ; FATE ; FRAGMENT ; FAMILY-MEMBER BIM ; B-CELL ; KINASE-1 ; EXPANSION ; caspase-3 ; block ; B cells ; BCL-2 FAMILY ; COMPLEMENT ; FULL-LENGTH ; MEDIATED CLEAVAGE ; SMALL INTERFERING RNA
    Abstract: Life and death of peripheral lymphocytes is strictly controlled to maintain physiologic levels of T and B cells. Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is one mechanism to delete superfluous lymphocytes by restimulation of their immunoreceptors and it depends partially on the CD95/CD95L system. Recently, we have shown that hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) determines T-cell fate. While full-length HPK1 is essential for NF-KB activation in T cells, the C-terminal fragment of HPK1, HPK1-C, suppresses NF-KB and sensitizes toward AICD by a yet undefined cell death pathway. Here we show that upon IL-2-driven expansion of primary T cells, HPK1 is converted to HPK1-C by a caspase-3 activity below the threshold of apoptosis induction. HPK1-C selectively blocks induction of NF-kappa B-dependent antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members but not of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim.Interestingly, T and B lymphocytes from HPK1-C transgenic mice undergo AICD independently of the CD95/CD95L system but involving caspase-9. Knock down of HPK1/HPK1-C or Bim by small interfering RNA shows that CD95L-dependent and HPK1/HPK1-C-dependent cell death pathways complement each other in AICD of primary T cells. Our results define HPK1-C as a suppressor of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and provide a molecular basis for our understanding of CD95L-independent AICD of lymphocytes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17712048
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  • 4
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; RESPONSES ; ASSOCIATION ; ethanol ; CONSUMPTION ; CANDIDATE GENES ; PROTEIN-INTERACTION NETWORKS ; VULNERABILITY ; LOW-LEVEL ; PREFERRING RATS
    Abstract: Genetic factors have as large role as environmental factors in the etiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable systematic searches for loci not hitherto implicated in the etiology of AD, many true findings may be missed owing to correction for multiple testing. The aim of the present study was to circumvent this limitation by searching for biological system-level differences, and then following up these findings in humans and animals. Gene-set-based analysis of GWAS data from 1333 cases and 2168 controls identified 19 significantly associated gene-sets, of which 5 could be replicated in an independent sample. Clustered in these gene-sets were novel and previously identified susceptibility genes. The most frequently present gene, ie in 6 out of 19 gene-sets, was X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (XRCC5). Previous human and animal studies have implicated XRCC5 in alcohol sensitivity. This phenotype is inversely correlated with the development of AD, presumably as more alcohol is required to achieve the desired effects. In the present study, the functional role of XRCC5 in AD was further validated in animals and humans. Drosophila mutants with reduced function of Ku80-the homolog of mammalian XRCC5-due to RNAi silencing showed reduced sensitivity to ethanol. In humans with free access to intravenous ethanol self-administration in the laboratory, the maximum achieved blood alcohol concentration was influenced in an allele-dose-dependent manner by genetic variation in XRCC5. In conclusion, our convergent approach identified new candidates and generated independent evidence for the involvement of XRCC5 in alcohol dependence.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25035082
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  • 5
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence. METHODS: Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value=6.63x10(-3)); 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value=9.57x10(-3)); and apoptosis (P-value=1.75x10(-2)) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status. CONCLUSIONS: The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27315593
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  • 6
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  4. Wissenschaftlicher Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Essstörungen; 20140320-20140322; Leipzig; DOC14dgess053 /20140317/
    Publication Date: 2014-03-18
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 7
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; VITRO ; SITES ; PROTEIN ; TRANSDUCTION ; ACTIVATION ; FAMILY ; DOMAIN ; T-CELLS ; DOWN-REGULATION ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; signal transduction ; PLASMA ; MEMBRANE ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; LYMPHOCYTES ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; RECRUITMENT ; ADAPTER PROTEINS ; KAPPA-B ; N-TERMINAL KINASE ; clustering ; molecular ; ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ; B-CELL RECEPTOR ; GERMINAL CENTER KINASE ; HPK1 ; JNK ; KINASE-ACTIVITY ; progenitor
    Abstract: Adaptive immune signaling can be coupled to stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-kappaB activation by the hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1), a mammalian hematopoiesis-specific Ste20 kinase. To gain insight into the regulation of leukocyte signal transduction, we investigated the molecular details of HPK1 activation. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the Src family kinase Lck and the SLP-76 family adaptor protein Clnk (cytokine-dependent hematopoietic cell linker) to induce HPK1 tyrosine phosphorylation and relocation to the plasma membrane, which in lymphocytes results in recruitment of HPK1 to the contact site of antigen-presenting cell (APC)-T-cell conjugates. Relocation and clustering of HPK1 cause its enzymatic activation, which is accompanied by phosphorylation of regulatory sites in the HPK1 kinase activation loop. We show that full activation of HPK1 is dependent on autophosphorylation of threonine 165 and phosphorylation of serine 171, which is a target site for protein kinase D (PKD) in vitro. Upon T-cell receptor stimulation, PKD robustly augments HPK1 kinase activity in Jurkat T cells and enhances HPK1-driven SAPK/JNK and NF-kappaB activation; conversely, antisense down-regulation of PKD results in reduced HPK1 activity. Thus, activation of major lymphocyte signaling pathways via HPK1 involves (i) relocation, (h) autophosphorylation, and (iii) transphosphorylation of HPK1 by PKD
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15743830
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  • 8
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; VITRO ; DEATH ; SITES ; PROTEIN ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; mechanisms ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; STIMULATION ; MUTATION ; LYMPHOCYTES ; REGION ; MUTATIONS ; BETA ; RECRUITMENT ; immune response ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; TCR ; REGULATOR ; REQUIREMENT ; PHOSPHORYLATION SITES ; ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ; HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR KINASE-1 ; IKK ; CONSENSUS ; PKC ; USA ; A KINASE ; CBM complex ; IKK ACTIVATION ; MEDIATOR
    Abstract: Activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in T cells is required for induction of an adaptive immune response. Hematopoietic progenitor kinase (HPK1) is an important proximal mediator of T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced NF-kappa B activation. Knock-down of HPK1 abrogates TCR-induced IKK beta and NF-kappa B activation, whereas active HPK1 leads to increased IKK beta activity in T cells. Yet, the precise molecular mechanism of this process remains elusive. Here, we show that HPK1-mediated NF-kappa B activation is dependent on the adaptor protein CARMA1. HPK1 interacts with CARMA1 in a TCR stimulation-dependent manner and phosphorylates the linker region of CARMA1. Interestingly, the putative HPK1 phosphorylation sites in CARMA1 are different from known PKC theta consensus sites. Mutations of residues S549, S551, and S552 in CARMA1 abrogated phosphorylation of a CARMA1-linker construct by HPK1 in vitro. In addition, CARMA1 S551A or S5549A/S551A point mutants failed to restore HPK1-mediated and TCR-mediated NF-kappa B activation and IL-2 expression in CARMA1-deficient T cells. Thus, we identify HPK1 as a kinase specific for CARMA1 and suggest HPK1-mediated phosphorylation of CARMA1 as an additional regulatory mechanism tuning the NF-kappa B response upon TCR stimulation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19706536
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  • 9
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; human ; PHENOTYPES ; STRESS ; INSIGHTS ; CONSUMPTION ; GLUTAMATE ; DRINKING ; DEPENDENCE ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Alcoholism ; drug addiction ; genome-wide association study (GWAS) ; GLUTAMATERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION ; imaging genetics ; NALTREXONE ; QTL analysis ; TRANSPORTER GENE
    Abstract: Alcohol drinking is highly prevalent in many cultures and contributes to the global burden of disease. In fact, it was shown that alcohol constitutes 3.2% of all worldwide deaths in the year 2006 and is linked to more than 60 diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular diseases, liver cirrhosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, injuries and foetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism, which has been proven to have a high genetic load, is one potentially fatal consequence of chronic heavy alcohol consumption, and may be regarded as one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. The aim of the integrated genome research network 'Genetics of Alcohol Addiction'-which is a German inter-/trans-disciplinary life science consortium consisting of molecular biologists, behavioural pharmacologists, system biologists with mathematicians, human geneticists and clinicians-is to better understand the genetics of alcohol addiction by identifying and validating candidate genes and molecular networks involved in the aetiology of this pathology. For comparison, addictive behaviour to other drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine) is studied as well. Here, we present an overview of our research consortium, the current state of the art on genetic research in the alcohol field, and list finally several of our recently published research highlights. As a result of our scientific efforts, better insights into the molecular and physiological processes underlying addictive behaviour will be obtained, new targets and target networks in the addicted brain will be defined, and subsequently, novel and individualized treatment strategies for our patients will be delivered
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 10
    Abstract: The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 x 10-6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28714907
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