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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Drug utilization ; Antibacterial drugs ; international comparison
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Use of systemic antibacterial drugs in the countries of central and eastern Europe (CCEE) has been studied using the defined daily doses (DDD) methodology. For the comparison, national wholesale data from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Romania for the years 1989 and 1992 were used, i.e. for the years before and after the rapid sociopolitical changes in these countries. Substantial differences in the patterns of antibacterial drug use between countries as geographically and economically similar as the CCEE were observed. The general sales of antibiotics varied almost twofold among the CCEE and had decreased in most of the CCEE during the study period. The proportion of tetracyclines in the sales of 1992 ranged from 10% in Slovenia to 49% in Estonia, and that of broad-spectrum penicillins from 6% in Estonia to 40% in Slovenia. The use of narrow-spectrum penicillins varied within the range of 4% in Bulgaria to 38% in Slovakia, and had decreased during the study years in all countries. Aminoglycosides accounted for 5–12% of all antibacterials in Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia in the study period, and these countries, with the exception of Slovakia, also had a high consumption of chloramphenicol. In 1992, by far the most popular antiinfectives in the CCEE were doxycycline, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, which ranked among the top ten drugs in all countries studied. All countries had their specific preferences in the top ten lists, but the rationality of these traditions can be questioned: tetracycline + oleandomycin in Bulgaria; penamecillin in the Czech Republic and Hungary; sulphonamides in Estonia and Lithuania; and benzathine penicillin and streptomycin in Slovakia. The international differences in antibiotic utilization are suggested to be related to the respective health care systems (e.g. drug reimbursement) and prescribing preferences (e.g. therapeutic traditions), quite apart from possible differences in drug efficacy, drug tolerance and the prevalence and severity of various infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Drug utilization ; Estonia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To determine the patterns of drug use in Estonia for the years 1989 and 1994–1995, i.e. for the years before and after the pharmaceutical services in the country changed from a state monopoly to a competitive market. Methods: The wholesale data from Estonia and the defined daily doses methodology were used. For comparison, national statistics on medicines from Finland and Sweden for the years 1994–1995 are shown. Results: The general sales of drugs in Estonia decreased almost twofold in all major pharmacological groups from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently increased by 10%–30% in 1995. Substantial differences in patterns of drug use between Estonia and the two Nordic countries were observed. The amount of prescription-only medicines used in Estonia was approximately 25% of that used in Finland and Sweden. The amount of over-the-counter drugs used was 61% of that used in Finland and 58% of that used in Sweden. In the drug use patterns in Estonia, some common trends can be noted: (1) persistent traditions, such as the low use of diuretics, beta-blockers, antithrombotics and inhalant anti-asthmatic drugs; (2) changes in prescription preferences – central anti-adrenergic drugs, pyrazolones, aminoglycosides and barbiturates are being replaced by calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, propionic acid derivatives, cephalosporins and benzodiazepines, respectively; (3) rapidly increasing use of drugs not prescribed in the 1980s, such as hormonal contraceptives, opioids and antiulcer drugs, which strongly improves the quality of pharmacotherapy in Estonia. Conclusion: The general trends in Estonia and the two Nordic countries are similar – the use of newer and more effective drugs is increasing and that of older ones decreasing. The changes are more rapid in Estonia than in Finland and Sweden, but, because of a short observation period, the use of newer drugs not yet prevailing. The international differences in drug utilization observed in this study may possibly be related mainly to the prescription preferences (e.g. therapeutic traditions) and less dependent on the respective health care systems (e.g. reimbursement schemes) and economic state of the country.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Russians ; CYP2D6
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To investigate the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 phenotypes and genotypes in a Russian population of Estonia. Methods: Two hundred and eighteen unrelated healthy subjects of Russian origin were studied. All participants took 10 mg debrisoquine and 100 mg S/R-mephenytoin for phenotyping. The CYP2D6 genotype was analysed by PCR amplification for the CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 alleles and subjects with S/R-mephenytoin ratios of greater than 0.5 were genotyped with respect to CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles. Results: Seventeen subjects (7.8%) were classified as poor metabolisers of debrisoquine and 5 (2.3%) as poor metabolisers of S-mephenytoin. The frequency of CYP2D6*4 was 14.4% and that of CYP2D6*3 1.4%. Seven of 15 poor metabolisers of debrisoquine (47%) carried two defective CYP2D6 alleles (CYP2D6*3 or CYP2D6*4). Six of the 10 S-mephenytoin poor-metaboliser alleles (60%) carried either the CYP2C19*2 or CYP2C19*3. Conclusion: The frequencies of poor metabolisers of debrisoquine and S-mephenytoin among Russians were similar to those in other Caucasian populations. The CYP2D6 poor-metaboliser phenotype was predicted by PCR-based amplification for the CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 alleles with 47% accuracy. The frequency of the CYP2D6*4 allele was lower in Russians than in other Caucasian populations studied so far.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Drug use ; Estonia ; Nordic countries ; geographical difference ; wholesale data
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Wholesale data from Estonia covering all drug supplies during the period 1983–1989 have been studied using the defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. The use of all major pharmacological groups was compared with the corresponding statistics from the Nordic countries. The patterns of drug use showed large differences between the Nordic countries and Estonia. Many drugs were used in large quantities in Estonia although they are no longer considered to be first-line medications in the Nordic countries because of their high risk to benefit ratio. These included the pyrazolones (phenylbutazone, aminophenazone), chloramphenicol, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and Rauwolfia alkaloids. On the other hand, several groups of effective drugs were available in Estonia only in limited amounts, including the histamine (H2) receptor antagonists, hormonal contraceptives, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and cephalosporins. There were also differences in the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure lowering agents, and anti-asthmatic drugs. Amongst the factors influencing drug usage it appears that economic status, the ordering and invoicing routines of the pharmaceutical services, and therapeutic traditions were the main reasons for the differences found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8221
    Keywords: 3H-flunitrazepam ; central and peripheral binding sites ; GABA agonists
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0167-0115
    Keywords: Anxiety model ; Benzodiazepine receptor ; Thymopentin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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