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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Liver, neoplasms ; Sonography ; Angiography ; Computed tomography ; Oily contrast media
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the characteristics of combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma of the liver by imaging techniques, six patients (five male and one female), aged 46–60 years, with proved combined tumors were selected for this study from the review of 500 resected specimens of liver tumors. Images obtained from sonography, computed tomography (CT), angiography, and CT after intraarterial injection of iodized oil (iodized-oil CT) were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the appearance of pathologic specimens. Sonographic findings were round or ovoid hypoechoic masses with central hyperechoic area (target appearance) in all patients. On CT scans, tumors were relatively well-defined low- and/or iso-attenuation masses in all patients. Angiography showed hypovascular masses in five patients. In one patient, the tumor appeared as a hypovascular mass with a central hypervascular area. On iodized-oil CT scans, all patients showed partial retention of iodized oil in tumors. Echogenicity in tumors at sonography or attenuation in tumors at CT could not be correlated with histologic difference in tumors at pathologic specimens. However, the hypervascular area at angiography and the compact retention areas of iodized oil at iodized-oil CT corresponded to portions of hepatocellular carcinoma within the combined tumor. On the basis of our results, imaging features, including target appearance at sonography, hypovascular mass with central hypervascular portions at angiography, and partial retention of iodized oil in tumors at iodized-oil CT, might be helpful in making accurate diagnosis of these rare tumors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in the colour and colour change of dental resin composites over commonly used two backgrounds. Colour of five uncured and cured resin composites before and after polishing with 600-, 1000- or 1500-grit SiC paper was measured according to the CIELAB colour scale relative to the illuminant D65 over a white background (WB; reflectance = 91·57%) and a light trap (LT; reflectance = 0·01%) on a reflection spectrophotometer with the SCE geometry. Colour difference (ΔE*ab) by the background, and by the specimen conditions over each of two backgrounds was calculated. ΔE*ab values between the same specimen by the background were 2·38–11·60. ΔE*ab values by the specimen condition were varied by the background, and ΔE*ab between cured/polished specimens over WB were significantly higher than those over LT (P 〈 0·05) except a few cases. Background influenced three-colour coordinates of CIE L*, a*, and b* values differently depending on the material and the specimen condition. Background significantly influenced the colour coordinates and colour difference by the specimen conditions. As the light trap can eliminate the influence of variations at the background, measured colour over the light trap can be the colour of material itself. Correlation between the measured colour and varied shades of background should be further studied.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of thermocycling on the changes of elastic modulus (EM) and colour, and to evaluate cytotoxicity after repeated elution of short-term-use soft liners. Three short-term-use soft liners [soft acrylic-based Coe Comfort (CCM), Coe Soft (CST) and Soft Liner (SFL)], and long-term-use silicone-based Tokuso Soft Liner (TSL) acting as a control were studied. EM was measured at baseline and after thermocycling at 5–55 °C for 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 cycles. For the colour measurement, specimens in discs 20 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were prepared, attached to a denture base resin plate, and then thermocycled as above. Colour change (ΔE*) was measured according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*, a*, and b* scale on a spectrophotometer. For the cytotoxicity evaluation, specimens were eluted for 24 h in culture media repeatedly up to four times, and MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed. EM of CCM and CST increased up to 1500 and 1000 cycles of thermocycling respectively. EM of SFL gradually increased up to 2000 cycles, and that of TSL increased after 500 cycles and did not change after then. ΔE* of soft liners after 2000 cycles except CCM were 3·68–8·65. EM increased up to 1000–1500 cycles, and perceivable colour change was observed after 2000 cycles in most materials. Therefore, short-term-use soft liners should be used within a limited time, although the cytotoxicity decreased after repeated elution.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the various light curing units (plasma arc, halogen and light-emitting diodes) and irradiation methods (one-step, two-step and pulse) using different light energy densities on the leachability of unreacted monomers (Bis-GMA and UDMA) and the surface hardness of a composite resin (Z250, 3M). Leachability of the specimens immersed for 7 days in ethanol was analysed by HPLC. Vicker's hardness number (VHN) was measured immediately after curing (IC) and after immersion in ethanol for 7 days. Various irradiation methods with three curing units resulted in differences in the amount of leached monomers and VHN of IC when light energy density was lower than 17·0 J cm−2 (P = 0·05). However, regardless of curing units and irradiation methods, these results were not different when the time or light energy density increased. When similar light energy density was irradiated (15·6–17·7 J cm−2), the efficiency of irradiation methods was different by the following order: one-step ≥ two-step 〉 pulse. These results suggest that the amount of leached monomers and VHN were influenced by forming polymer structure in activation and initiation stages of polymerization process with different light source energies and curing times.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) for possible dental applications with varied liquid and powder compositions under the same testing condition. Cements studied in this experiment were divided into two groups of CPC not containing polymer and polymeric CPC (PCPC). Cement powder was formed by combining equimolar amounts of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and tetracalcium phosphate, or acrylic resin polymer powder mixture. The CPC specimens for the compressive strength (CS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) measurements were prepared by mixing powder and liquid for 30 s with a powder/liquid ratio of 3:1, and subsequently packing the paste into a brass mould. The specimens were kept at 37 °C and 100% relative humidity for 24 h before measurements were conducted on a Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 1 mm min–1. The CS of CPC was 0ḃ14–10ḃ29 MPa and that of PCPC was 0ḃ26–117ḃ58 MPa. The DTS of CPC was 0ḃ10–4ḃ56 MPa and that of PCPC was 0ḃ07–22ḃ54 MPa. The CS and DTS were very diverse depending on the composition of powder and liquid. Some compositions showed higher values than commercial liners. Thus compositions of 2% carboxymethyl cellulose + 35% citric acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 20% gelatin in PBS, 2% sodium alginate in PBS, 20–40% aqueous acrylic-maleic copolymer solution, and some of the HPMC and PMVE-Ma solutions exhibited promising formulae for dentine regenerating materials. Acrylic resin-PCPC group showed generally higher CS and DTS values. Based on this study, further studies on the reaction with odontoblast and resultant dentine regeneration should be performed using promising compositions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of polymerization in the newly introduced blue light emitting diode (LED) (Experimental, SNU, Korea), and plasma arc curing (PAC) (Apollo 95E, Elite, DMD, USA) compared with conventional halogen lamp (Spectrum 800, Dentsply, USA). Various irradiation time with fixed intensity of light-curing units (LCUs) were irradiated to produce the same total light energy. The degree of double bond conversion (DC) of three resin composite (shade A3) was measured with a Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer at various depths from the surface. Immediately after exposure to light, 100 μm thickness of resin composite was sectioned at the 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm from the top surface. The infrared spectrum of uncured resin and each wafer specimen were then obtained. The results were as follows: DC was significantly influenced by three variables of material, depth from the surface, and light source and energy level (P 〈 0·01). When the same light energy was irradiated, DC by plasma arc and LED was not significantly different from the halogen lamp (P 〉 0·05). When light energy was increased twice, no significant difference in DC was observed up to 2 mm from the surface (P 〉 0·05), but DC increased significantly from 3 mm (P 〈 0·05).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY  The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the effects of colour measuring modes [specular component excluded (SCE) versus specular component included (SCI)] and the standard light source (C, A or D65) on the colour of shade guides. After the labial part of shade tabs of two shade guides (Vita and Chromascop) was polished flat up to no. 2400 silicone carbide paper, the colour was measured according to the International Commission on Illumination (CIE)L*a*b* colour scale on a spectrophotometer. In both shade guides, all the average CIE L* values of each shade series, and most of CIE b* values were different depending on the measuring mode (P 〈 0·01). However, there was no difference in CIE a* values depending on the measuring mode. Colour difference (ΔE*) between the values measured with SCE mode and with SCI mode was 3·21–6·50 in Vita shade guide, 3·22–5·47 in Chromascop shade guide. ΔE* caused by the difference in light source was very small in Vita shade guide regardless of the measuring mode. In the Vita shade guide, the shade series (A–D) was negatively correlated with CIE L* and CIE a* values measured with SCE mode. In the Chromascop shade guide, the shade series (100–500) was negatively correlated with CIE L* value measured with SCI mode.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic–lactic (SL) acid conditioner on the shear bond strength of brackets. Fluoride releasing (Light-bond) and non-fluoride releasing (Enlight) composite adhesives were used after conditioning with 0·22% salicylic + 9% lactic acid or 34% phosphoric acid. Composite adhesives were light cured with either a halogen light curing (HLC) unit for 30–50 s or a plasma arc curing (PAC) unit for 4 s. The shear bond strength was measured with an Instron. Failure modes of debonded brackets were identified based on adhesive remnants on the bracket and tooth. Salicylic–lactic acid conditioning was found to provide adequate shear bond strength. Groups conditioned with SL acid were debonded mainly at the enamel–resin interface and comparatively clean enamel surface after debonding was observed than those conditioned with phosphoric acid. Using confocal laser scanning microscopic examinations, it was found that demineralization patterns between SL acid and phosphoric acid conditioned groups were not different when the same adhesive was used. The SL acid conditioner did not reduce the demineralization. Light-bond adhesive showed less demineralization than Enlight adhesive. The PAC unit can be recommended as an alterative to the HLC unit because it significantly reduces the irradiation time.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage of three orthodontic adhesive resins when polymerized with a high-energy plasma arc light (1340 mW cm−2) and a conventional halogen light (500 mW cm−2), and to correlate the polymerization shrinkage with the degree of conversion. To equalize the total light energy delivered to the adhesive resin, irradiation time was varied between 3 or 6 s for a plasma arc-curing unit, and 8 or 16 s for a halogen light-curing unit. The polymerization shrinkage of adhesive resins during the light-curing process was measured using a computer-controlled mercury dilatometer and the degree of conversion was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A plasma arccuring unit produced significantly lower polymerization shrinkage than a halogen light-curing unit when the equivalent total light energy was irradiated to the orthodontic adhesive resins (P 〈 0·05). The magnitude of polymerization shrinkage was significantly different depending on the kind of adhesive resins (P 〈 0·05), but there was no significant correlation between the filler fraction and the polymerization shrinkage (r2 = 0·039). There was strong correlation (r2 = 0·787) between the polymerization shrinkage and the degree of conversion with a halogen light-curing unit, but poor correlation (r2 = 0·377) was observed with a plasma arc-curing unit.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 141 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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