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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: myoelectric activity ; tachygastria ; bradygastria ; canine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether food ingestion causes a change in the susceptibility of the stomach to dysrhythmia or in the characteristics of gastric dysrhythmia. The susceptibility of the stomach to develop dysrhythmia was measured by determining the median effective dose of four different drugs known to produce gastric dysrhythmia. These drugs were epinephrine, PGE2, met-enkephalin, and glucagon. The median effective dose for inducing gastric dysrhythmia was measured in four healthy conscious dogs by Dixon's up-and-down method during fasting and after feeding. The median effective dose of epinephrine, PGE2, met-enkephalin, and glucagon were higher after feeding (16.6, 16.6, 35.1,〉221 μg/kg, respectively) than during fasting (1.7, 5.2, 11.1, 61.0 μg/kg, respectively). The results indicate that feeding renders the stomach less susceptible to pharmacologically induced dysrhythmia. However, characteristics of gastric dysrhythmias, such as site of origin and direction of propagation, were similar whether they occurred during fasting or after feeding.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: gastric dysrhythmias ; gastric motility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of electrical dysrhythmias on the mechanical activity of the fed stomach was investigated in 5 conscious dogs implanted with Ag-AgCl electrodes and strain gauge force transducers. Each dog was fed 1 can of ALPO® and electromechanical activities of the stomach were recorded for the next 120 min. The results show that intraarterial boluses of met-enkephalin (75 μg/kg), PGE2 (36 μg/kg), and epinephrine (36 μg/kg) induced episodes of antral dysrhythmias whereas saline (1 cc) did not. The postcibal antrat motility index for the test period was not altered following saline injection, but it was reduced by 61%, 70%, and 81% following the administration of met-enkephalin, epinephrine, and PGE2, respectively (p〈0.01 vs. baseline period). During periods of normal electrical rhythm, PGE2 and epinephrine significantly reduced the antral motility index (2.07±0.93 and 3.24±0.79, respectively) vs. saline (7.92±0.44) (p〈0.05 for both drugs) whereas met-enkephalin (4.98±0.56) did not. In contrast, during episodes of dysrhythmia, met-enkephalin significantly depressed antral motility (1.70±0.74) (p〈0.05 vs. periods with normal electrical rhythm) whereas neither epinephrine nor PGE2 caused a further reduction in antral motility from what was seen during periods of normal electrical rhythm (1.84±0.72 and 1.34±0.37, respectively). We thus conclude that intraarterial administration of met-enkephalin, PGE2, or epinephrine induce gastric dysrhythmias postcibally and depress antral contractile activity. The relaxatory effect of met-enkephalin on antral contractions is primarily due to its dysrhythmic effect whereas PGE2 and epinephrine inhibit antral motility even when the electrical rhythm is undisturbed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: oropharyngeal emptying ; esophageal emptying ; viscosity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of bolus viscosity on oropharyngeal and esophageal emptying is not known. We investigated this question in 38 healthy volunteers by measuring the transit of five semisolid boluses of varying viscosities across the oropharynx and the esophagus with the aid of scintigraphy. The studies were performed twice on consecutive days. The results show that oropharyngeal and esophageal emptying are reliably reproduced from day to day. Esophageal emptying was inversely related to bolus viscosity; however, oropharyngeal emptying was not influenced by bolus viscosity. We conclude that bolus viscosity has significant, but selective, effect on oropharyngoesophageal emptying.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease ; lymphoma ; colitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We describe the first reported case of mantle zone lymphoma of the colon presenting as diffuse ileocolitis simulating severe inflammatory bowel disease. This case serves to illustrate the importance of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis of lymphoma in extranodal sites.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0460
    Keywords: Dysphagia ; Psychological testing ; Deglutition ; Deglutition disorders
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We hypothesized that patients who complain of dysphagia without demonstrable organic abnormality may have an underlying psychological dysfunction. We thus conducted a comprehensive assessment in three groups of patients with dysphagia. Dysphagia was classified as obstructive (Obst) when an obstructive lesion was present on esophagoscopy or barium swallow, motility-related (Mot) when abnormal motility was shown on esophageal manometry in the presence of normal esophagoscopy or barium swallow, or nonobstructive, nonmotility-related (NONM) when manometry and esophagoscopy or barium swallow were both normal. We prospectively evaluated 71 patients with Obst-dysphagia, 15 patients with Mot-dysphagia and 10 patients with NONM-dysphagia with a battery of standardized psychological tests including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI). The results indicate that patients with NONM-dysphagia have psychological attributes similar to those found in patients with Obst-dysphagia or Mot-dysphagia. Combination of scores for parameters such as somatization, depression, and anxiety could not distinguish among the three groups of dysphagia patients. We thus conclude that patients with NONM-dysphagia, as a group, have similar psychological profiles compared to patients with dysphagia due to organic causes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background. Iatrogenic transmission of Helicobacter pylori via contaminated endoscopic devices is well documented. Despite the prevalence of this infectious agent, few controlled studies have investigated the major factors that impact on reprocessing of endoscopes contaminated with H. pylori.Materials and Methods. An endoscope (Pentax) was contaminated with 108 cfu/ml of H. pylori in 5% bovine calf serum as standardized inoculum. The endoscope then was passed through one of eight arms (five repetitions per arm = 40 total runs), as follows: 1, recovery control (no cleaning or disinfection); 2, manual cleaning alone; 3–5, manual precleaning followed by either 10-, 20-, or 45-minute exposure to 2% glutaraldehyde and ethanol (ETOH) drying; 6, manual cleaning followed by automated reprocessing by STERIS System; 7 and 8, automated reprocessing by STERIS with and without active peracetic acid sterilant (wash-off control). Suction-biopsy channels and air-water channels were harvested for microbiological culture.Results. Control runs recovered more than 1 × 106 cfu per site, confirming the viability of the test organism and the adequacy of the biological burden for challenge. When instruments underwent manual cleaning alone (without subsequent disinfection), test organisms remained in 40% of runs at the air-water site. Manual cleaning followed by 10-, 20-, or 45-minute glutaraldehyde exposure and ETOH drying removed all test organisms from all sites in all runs (i.e., 100% disinfection). The automated STERIS system with or without active peracetic acid sterilant also removed all test organisms from all sites in all runs, as did manual cleaning followed by STERIS use.Conclusion. Manual cleaning alone does not effectively remove H. pylori from an endoscope. Current joint association recommendations for minimal disinfection (manual cleaning followed by at least 20 minutes of immersion in glutaraldehyde and ETOH drying) are effective in preventing cross-transmission of H. pylori. Reprocessing using the automated STERIS system according to manufacturer's recommendations also is highly effective in sterilizing endoscopes contaminated with H. pylori.
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