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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Keywords Intractable epilepsy ; Epilepsy surgery ; Outcome ; Children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Surgical experience with long-term follow-up is limited in childhood intractable epilepsy, compared with adult epilepsy. To assess the role of each presurgical evaluation modality and to identify prognostic factors for favorable seizure control after epilepsy surgery, 38 children with intractable epilepsy who underwent surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Among the available preoperative evaluation modalities, PET and neuropsychological testing showed the highest rates of positive results, whereas MRI was the most concordant with EEG findings. During a follow-up period of at least 12 months, 26 of the 38 patients showed favorable seizure control (Engel classifications I and II). The best seizure control was achieved in patients with a temporal resection and discrete lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. In spite of the invasive study, the less satisfactory results followed an extratemporal resection. We conclude that epilepsy surgery benefits children with intractable epilepsy and that the role of invasive study should be re-established according to the area of resection and presence of discrete lesion on MRI.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Tuberculosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty-six patients with intracranial tuberculosis (Tb) (10 with acute meningitis, 5 with chronic meningitis, 5 with meningitic sequelae and 6 with localized tuberculoma(s) were examined with MR before and after Gd-DTPA enhancement (0.1 mmol/kg), using 2.0T superconducting unit, and the images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT scans. Without Gd-DTPA enhancement, the MR images were generally insensitive to detection of active meningeal inflammation and granulomas. The signal intensity of granulomas was usually isointense to gray matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images, whether they were associated with diffuse meningitis or presented as localized tuberculoma(s). A few granulomas showed focal hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Calcifications seen on CT of the meningitic sequelae group usually appeared markedly hypointense on all spin-echo sequences. On Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images, abnormal meningeal enhancement indicating active inflammation was conspicuous, and the granulomas often appeared as conglomerated ring-enhancing nodules, which seems to be characteristic of granulomas. Thin rim enhancement around the suprasellar calcifications were observed in two out of 5 patients with meningitic sequelae. Compared with CT, MR detected a few more ischemic infarcts, hemorrhagic infarcts, meningeal enhancement and granulomas in the acute meningitis group, but missed small calcifications in the basal cisterns well shown on CT in the sequelae group. Otherwise, MR generally matched CT scans. MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in evaluation of active intracranial Tb only if Gd-DTPA is used, while CT is better than MR in evaluating meningitic sequelae with calcification.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Meninges ; Tumours ; Children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mesenteric arteriovenous fitulas or arteriovenous malformations of the intestine are relatively rare, especially in the form of diffuse disease. We describe a case of diffuse intestinal arteriovenous malformation associated with congestive heart failure and cutaneous hemangioma.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The case of a 13-year-old girl with striking carpal and tarsal osteolysis (sporadic occurrence) is reported. MRI confirmed the total absence of carpal bones and medial tarsal bones. Dense fibrocollagenous tissue replaced the spaces left by the resorbed bones. Arteriography showed occlusion of the radial artery at the level of the physis of the distal radius with increased tortuosity of the ulnar artery. There was no major vascular occlusion in the foot except for some indistinct and blurred tarsal branches of the anterior tibial artery.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We present the CT findings of pulmonary paragonimiasis in a 9-year-old girl. It appeared as a large cystic mass with an air-fluid level and simulated a lung abscess. Communication with a segmental bronchus was demonstrated well on a CT scan obtained after aspiration.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Castleman disease is a relatively rare disorder affecting young adults. We present the CT and ultrasonographic findings of Castleman disease in two children. In one patient with hyaline-vascular type disease, CT showed a well-enhancing mass in the right paratracheal area. In a second patient with plasma cell type disease, there was a solid, homogeneous mass in the retroperitoneal space which was poorly enhancing. Ultrasound showed a uniform hypoechogenic mass in both cases.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is an unusual hepatic tumour in children and should be distinguished from other hepatic lesions. Objective. To describe the imaging characteristics of FNH in children. Materials and methods. We examined five patients (three boys and two girls, mean age 9.4 years) with pathologically confirmed FNH. The diagnosis was obtained by tumour resection (n = 4) and percutaneous needle biopsy (n = 1). One patient with multiple FNHs showed recurrent lesions after tumour resection. All patients were studied with US (including colour and power Doppler US [n = 3]) and CT. Dynamic enhanced CT scans were available in three patients. MRI (n = 2) or coeliac angiography (n = 1) was performed in three patients. Results. Seven of eight FNH lesions in five patients were demonstrated by imaging. The average size of the lesions was 6.5 cm. Six lesions detected on US showed variable echogenicity with a central hyperechoic scar (n = 2). On Doppler examination, central or peripheral hypervascular areas were seen (n = 3). Six lesions detected on contrast-enhanced CT showed high attenuation (n = 4) or iso-attenuation (n = 2). On early phase scans, all the lesions (n = 3) showed high attenuation. Irregular linear or ovoid central scars were detected in two patients on CT. MR demonstrated three lesions in two patients, one of which had not been detected by US or CT. A central low signal intensity scar (n = 1) was seen on T2-weighted MRI. Coeliac angiography performed in one patient showed a hypervascular mass with homogeneous staining. Conclusion. FNH in children shows a wide spectrum of imaging findings on various radiological examinations and the typical central scar was not always seen on imaging studies. Dynamic enhanced CT obtained in the early phase and colour Doppler studies may be helpful in the diagnosis of FNH by allowing characterisation of tumour vascularity. FNH should be included in the differential diagnosis of liver mass in children.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract With the increasing application of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC), new side-effects are encountered. We describe two children with proximal femoral osteosarcoma who developed focal myositis of the abdominal wall musculature after IAC. In both cases, myositis presented as abdominal pain and mimicked acute abdomen. US demonstrated asymmetrical thickening of abdominal-wall musculature in the right lower abdomen. This diagnosis should be considered when evaluating the patient with unexplained abdominal pain and a history of IAC.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract MR findings of a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome involving the CNS are described. Abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images combined with swelling in the lentiform nucleus, posterior limb of internal capsule, external capsule bilaterally, and left extreme capsule was shown on initial MR; a small low signal intensity in the left putamen on T1-and T2-weighted images and generalized atrophy in the area of high signal intensity on previous T2-weighted images was shown on follow-up MR. These findings indicate infarct with focal hemorrhage, which is one of the histopathological features of CNS complication in hemolytic uremic syndrome.
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