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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: High-grade glioma (HGG) is highly angiogenic, but antiangiogenic therapy has transient clinical benefit in only a fraction of patients. Vascular regulators of these heterogeneous responses remain undetermined. We found up-regulation of Sox7 and down-regulation of Sox17 in tumor endothelial cells (tECs) in mouse HGG. Sox7 deletion suppressed VEGFR2 expression, vascular abnormality, hypoxia-driven invasion, regulatory T cell infiltration, and tumor growth. Conversely, Sox17 deletion exacerbated these phenotypes by up-regulating Sox7 in tECs. Anti-VEGFR2 antibody treatment delayed tumor growth by normalizing Sox17 -deficient abnormal vessels with high Sox7 levels but promoted it by regressing Sox7 -deficient vessels, recapitulating variable therapeutic responses to antiangiogenic therapy in HGG patients. Our findings establish that Sox7 promotes tumor growth via vessel abnormalization, and its level determines the therapeutic outcome of VEGFR2 inhibition in HGG. In 189 HGG patients, Sox7 expression was heterogeneous in tumor vessels, and high Sox7 levels correlated with poor survival, early recurrence, and impaired vascular function, emphasizing the clinical relevance of Sox7 in HGG.
    Keywords: Solid Tumors
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The effect of propionic acid on poly(β-hydroxybutyric-co-β-hydroxyvaleric)acid P(HB-co-HV) copolymer production byAlcaligenes eutrophus ATCC 17699 supplied with fructose and propionic acid under nitrogen limited conditions was studied. The growth ofA. eutrophus was almost completely inhibited when the concentraion, of propionic acid exceeds 1.5 g/L. Specific production rate of HV unit was highest when propionic acid concentration was 0.5 g/L. In batch culture, pH change occurs in proportion to the consumption of propionic acid. Optimal concentration of propionic acid was maintained during the production phase by using a pH-stat feeding method and a total polymer content higher than 70% and the relative HV content upto 50% could be achieved.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal Gland ; Serotonin uptake in sympathetic nerve fibers ; Granulated vesicles in sympathetic nerve endings ; Electron Microscopic Autoradiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fine localization of rat pineal serotonin has been studied by means of electron microscopic autoradiography. Two hours after the intravenous injection of tritium labelled 5-hydroxytryptophan, the location of large number of silver tangled threads is seen in the sympathetic nerve terminals. There is also a less specific accumulation of the silver grains in the pinealocytes, some appearing in the cytoplasmic organelles and some in the nucleus. In quantitative terms, 43% of the total count of silver grains were in the nerve endings whereas pinealocytes, which comprise a much larger volume of the section, contain a proportionally much smaller number of silver particles (53%). Furthermore the perivascular spaces, which comprise a larger percentage in volume of the section than the nerve endings has nevertheless only about 4% of the grains counted. Although the precise localization of the silver grains is obscure, the reaction of the granulated vesicles in the nerve terminals to the double fixation used, is similar to that shown by the extremely dense material in vesicles of platelets, which was demonstrated to contain serotonin. The results therefore suggest that the silver grains appearing in the nerve terminals two hours after the administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan are in the serotonin binding site in the axon terminals, containing the granulated vesicles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: algae ; seaweeds ; antivirals ; photosensitizers ; herpes simplex virus ; sindbis virus ; poliovirus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Extracts of 13 Korean seaweeds, previously shown to contain antiviral activity, were investigated in more detail in order to learn the nature of the antiviral compounds and their mechanisms of action. One extract, from Codium fragile, was active against all three test viruses (herpes simplex, HSV; Sindbis, SINV; polio), whereas the others were more selective. Thus four species, Enteromorpha linza, Colpomenia bullosa, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and Undaria pinnatifida, were active against HSV and SINV, but not poliovirus. The other eight were active against either HSV or SINV. In all cases there was evidence for photosensitizers, since the antiviral activities required or were enhanced substantially by light. In general UVA (long wave ultraviolet) was much more effective than visible light in promoting activity, although the extract of Sargassum sagamianum could be activated equally by either. In experiments to determine the site of action of these antiviral extracts, the predominant activity was virucidal (i.e. direct inactivation of virus particles), rather than inhibition of virus replication, although Sargassum sagamianum also could protect cells against subsequent virus infection. These results imply that different antiviral compounds are present among the extracts, and furthermore the activities cannot be explained in terms of common ingredients such as polysaccharides or tannins. We suggest that seaweeds may be a source of potentially useful and interesting antiviral compounds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES), makes use a beam of low energy positrons to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons. This novel mechanism provides PAES with a number of unique features which distinguishes it from other methods of surface analysis. In PAES the very large collisionally induced secondary electron background which is present under the low energy Auger peaks using conventional tecniques can be eliminated by using a positron beam whose energy is below the range of Auger electron energies. In addition, PAES is more surface selective than conventional Auger Spectroscopy because the PAES signal originates almost exclusively from the topmost atomic layer due to the fact that the positrons annihilating with the core electrons are trapped in an image correlation well just outside the surface. In this paper, recent applications of Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) to the study of surface structure and surface chemistry will be discussed including studies of the growth, alloying and inter-diffusion of ultrathin layers of metals, metals on semiconductors, and semiconductors on semiconductors. In addition, the possibilities for future application of PAES to the study of catalysis and surface chemistry will be outlined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract TT-phase of niobium oxide was found to decompose CCl4 into CO2 most selectively (without formation of COCl2) at 453 K among oxides, amorphous Nb2O5, TT-phase Nb2O5, SiO2−Al2O3, Al2O3, V2O5, TiO2 and ZrO2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0178-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A perfusion-control strategy based on cellular consumption rates of oxygen and glucose was established for the production of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA). Employing this strategy, the influences of microcarrier types and the culture media on culture performances were evaluated. In the control perfusion culture, which used a solid microcarrier and a 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) medium, viable cell density reached 3.1 × 107 cells ml−1. However, formation of large, heterogeneous aggregates (500–1,000 μm) resulted in a gradual decrease in viable cell density to less than 1.0 × 107 cells ml−1. Accordingly, declines in the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and in the scu-PA portion of u-PA were observed. In the serum-free media, cell growth and u-PA production were suppressed 2–3 times, but were significantly enhanced when a porous microcarrier, Cultispheer G, was used. The cell-growth profile showed a continuous increase in cell density, reaching 5.1 × 107 cells ml−1, and the production of u-PA remained stable throughout the culture (1586 ± 247 IU ml−1). The values of all the parameters associated with cell growth and u-PA production were fairly comparable to or even higher than those in the control culture. Moreover, a 13% higher scu-PA portion of u-PA was observed in the serum-free culture, regardless of the microcarrier type, compared with scu-PA portion of u-PA in the control culture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0178-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Several carrier materials were examined for endoinulinase immobilization. A polystyrene carrier material (UF93®) gave the best immobilization capacity (217 units/g carrier) and operational stability. Carbohydrate compositions in the reaction product were quite similar irrespective of the support materials even though each carrier material has different pore structure associated with diffusional restriction. After immobilization the optimal pH for enzyme activity was shifted from 5.0 to 4.5, whereas optimal temperature (55 °C) was unaltered. Continuous production of inulo-oligosaccharides from chicory juice was carried out using the polystyrene-bound endoinulinase. The recommended operating conditions of the enzyme reactor for maximizing productivity were as follows: feed concentration, 100 g/l chicory juice; flow rate, as superficial space velocity 2.0 h−1; temperature, 55 °C. The enzyme reactor was run for 28 days at 55 °C achieving an oligosaccharide yield of 82% without any significant loss of initial enzyme activity, where the volumetric productivity was 200 g/l · h. Furthermore, there was no marked difference in operational stability between the two reactors fed with pure inulin solution and with chicory juice as a substrate even though chicory juice contains a lot of impurities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0178-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Amino acids rather than sugars are the primary limiting substrates for the culture of insect cells in a Grace's medium. When cultures are supplemented with amino acids, the yeastolate components other than the amino acids become the secondary limiting substrates. For the fed-batch culture of insect cells, a solution containing concentrated amino acids and yeastolate was supplied using an exponential feed flow rate calculated from mass balance equations. During the batch period the specific growth rate was 0.02 h−1, whereas during the fed-batch period it was measured as 0.007 and 0.012 h−1 on the basis of the cell numbers and the dry cell weight, respectively. This difference in the specific growth rates in the fed-batch period is caused by an increase in the cell size during this period. Furthermore, in fed-batch cultures, dissolved oxygen was found to be a limiting factor for high cell-density cultures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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