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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ; Hydroxyapatite ; Enterobacter agglomerans ; Organic acids ; Phosphate-solubilizing genes ; Rhizosphere ; Wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) possessing the ability to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of wheat. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the solubilization of phosphate by a known PSB, Enterobacter agglomerans, and by a genetically manipulated bacterium, Escherichia coli. A second laboratory study investigated the release of P from E. agglomerans compared with known acids. For the first laboratory study, a cosmid (pHC79) library of phosphate-solubilizing gene(s) from E. agglomerans chromosome DNA was constructed in E. coli JM109. The clone JM109 (pKKY) showing phosphate solubilization properties was screened on standard medium containing hydroxyapatite (HY). The P concentration significantly increased at 5 and 10 days for JM109 (pKKY) compared with JM109 (pHC79), the control. Although the P concentration increased, there was no significant change in their pHs. Furthermore, an increase in colony-forming units (CFUs) was seen at 5 and 10 days for JM109 (pKKY) but not for JM109 (pHC79). Artificial acidification of the culture medium with HCl, citric acid, oxalic acid, and lactic acid was achieved by shaking for 48h. Acidification with these selected acids solubilized more HY than E. agglomerans growing for 42h at similar pHs. However, a high P concentration was measured in culture medium with E. agglomerans growing for 84h despite similar pHs. Our results suggest that acid production may play an important role in HY solubilization, but is not the sole reason for the increase in P concentration in culture medium.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Glial fibrillary acidic protein ; Müller cell ; Increased intraocular pressure ; Retina ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we investigated the morphological changes of retinal tissues and the reaction of Müller cells in the ischemic rat retina induced by increasing intraocular pressure. At early stages (from 1 h to 24 h after reperfusion), cells in the ganglion cell layer and in the inner nuclear layer showed some degenerative changes, but at later stages (from 72 h to 4 weeks) marked degenerative changes occurred in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). At 4 weeks after reperfusion, the ONL was reduced to 1 or 2 cell layers. Immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) appeared in the endfeet and distal processes of Müller cells as of 1 h after reperfusion. GFAP immunoreactivity in Müller cells increased up to 2 weeks and then decreased at 4 weeks after reperfusion. Our findings suggest that Müller cells are involved in the pathophysiology of retinal ischemia through the expression of GFAP. The degree of GFAP expression in Müller cells closely correlated with that of the degeneration of retinal neurons.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Deux cent onze patients atteints de hernie discale lombaire, confirmée par imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) et représentant 242 niveaux, ont été répartis en cinq groupes. Le diagnostic IRM a été comparé aux constatations opératoires afin d'évaluer de façon prospective la précision diagnostique de la classification IRM. Il n'y a pas eu d'exploration discale négative. Pour la distinction entre protrusion et autres types de hernie discale, la sensibilité, la spécificité et l'exactitude de l'IRM ont été respectivement de 92%, 91% et 92%. Pour la séquestration discale, la sensibilité a été de 92%, la spécificité de 99% et l'exactitude de 97%. En ce qui concerne l'extrusion sous-ligamentaire, on a noté une sensibilité de 71%, une spécifité de 82% et une exactitude de 79%, tandis que pour les extrusions trans-ligamentaires la sensibilité a été de 52%, la spécifité de 92% et l'exactitude de 79%. L'exactitude moyenne pour la prévision du type de hernie discale a donc été de 85%. L'IRM de haute résolution est donc très efficace pour la détection des lésions discales et leur classification.
    Notes: Summary Two hundred and eleven patients with lumbar disc herniation at 242 levels were divided into 5 groups by their appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings at operation were compared to assess the accuracy of the MRI classification. There were no negative explorations. There was 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 92% accuracy for MRI in distinguishing protruded discs from other forms of lumbar disc herniation. For sequestrated discs there was 92% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% accuracy. In the extruded subligamentous type there was 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity and 79% accuracy, and 52% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 81% accuracy in the extruded transligamentous type. The overall accuracy of MRI predicting the types of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc was 85%. High resolution MRI is sensitive in detecting disc disease and specific in characterizing various subgroups of disc herniation, especially those which are sequestrated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Afin d'évaluer la valeur de la tomographie d'émission à simple photon, en haute résolution et obtenue à l'aide d'une caméra spéciale à trois têtes (3H-SPECT), dans le diagnostic de nécrose ischémique de la tête fémorale, une scintigraphie au TC-99m, une 3H-SPECT et une IRM ont été effectuées sur des patients suspectés de nécrose ischémique. La 3H-SPECT a été effectuée durant 20 minutes, 5 heures après injection de 20mCi de Tc-99m, à l'aide d'une gamma-caméra à 3 détecteurs rotatifs, équipée de collimateurs à ultra-haute résolution. En montrant un défect photonique, la scintigraphie et la 3H-SPECT ont permis le diagnostic de nécrose. Le diagnostic définitif de nécrose ischémique a pu être établi pour 32 patients et 52 hanches après l'IRM et/ou les constatations anatomo-pathologiques. Onze patients étaient atteints d'un seul côté et 21 étaient porteurs d'une nécrose bilatérale. Sur 32 patients et 52 hanches, la scintigraphie, la 3H-SPECT et l'IRM ont obtenu respectivement 37, 46 et 52 réactions positives. La sensibilité de la 3H-SPECT s'est donc révélée supérieure à celle de la scintigraphie (88.5% contre 71.5%) et supérieure également à celle, déjà rapportée, de la SPECT à tête unique. Dans la nécrose ischémique la 3H-SPECT donne une image plus claire et définit la zone atteinte de façon plus précise. Pour estimer le rôle de la 3H-SPECT dans le diagnostic de la nécrose ischémique il est nécessaire de poursuivre les recherches sur d'autres maladies et les études comparatives avec d'autres procédés radiologiques.
    Notes: Summary Bone scans, triple head single photon emission computed tomography (3H-SPECT) and MRI scans were compared for their ability to detect avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). 3H-SPECT was undertaken 5 hours after injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m MDP for 20 minutes using a 3 detector rotating gamma camera (TRIAD, Trionix) equipped with ultra-high resolution collimators. The bone scan and 3H-SPECT were diagnosed as positive for AVN when a photopenic defect in the femoral head could be identified. The final diagnosis of AVN was established in 32 patients in 52 hips by MRI and/or histological findings. Unilateral disease was present in 11 patients, while 21 had bilateral disease. Of 32 patients and 52 hips, the bone scan, 3H-SPECT and MRI detected 37, 46 and 52 positive hips respectively. The sensitivity of 3H-SPECT (88.5%) was higher than that of the bone scans (71.5%), and was also higher than that previously reported using a single head SPECT. In AVN, the 3H-SPECT image was much clearer, and permitted more accurate localization of lesions than was possible by a bone scan. Studies including patients with diseases other than AVN and correlation with other methods of imaging is needed to define the role of 3H-SPECT in the diagnosis of AVN more precisely.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Phospholipids ; Microbial biomass ; Phosphatase ; Cropping systems ; Long-term experiments Prairie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract In agricultural ecosystems that have had consistent cropping histories, standard microbial methods may be used to evaluate past and present practices. Our objective was to evaluate several microbial methods that best indicate cropping histories and soil quality on long-term plots. We selected soil microbial carbon (C), phospholipid analyses, direct counts of total fungal and bacterial biomass, and soil enzymes (phosphatases) to measure direct and indirect microbial activity on the Sanborn Field and Tucker Prairie. The Sanborn Field has been under various cropping and management practices since 1888 and the Tucker Prairie is an uncultivated site. Seven different plots were chosen on the Sanborn Field and random samples were taken in the summit area on the Tucker Prairie, which represented a reference site. Soil microbial biomass C, phospholipids, and enzyme activity were reflective of the cropping and management histories observed on the Sanborn Field. Enzymatic activity was highly correlated to soil organic matter. The direct counts of fungal and bacterial biomass showed that fungal populations dominated these soils, which may be attributed to soil pH. Soil microbial biomass C and enzyme assays seemed to be better potential indicators of cropping histories than the other methods tested in the long-term plots.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Organic acids ; Phosphate-solubilizing ; bacteria ; Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae ; Glomus etunicatum ; Enterobacter agglomerans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on plant growth, soil microbial activities, and the production of organic acids was studied in non-sterile soil containing hydroxyapatite and glucose. Glomus etunicatum (VAM), a fungus, and Enterobacter agglomerans, a bacterium able to solubilize insoluble phosphate, were used as inocula. Three treatments and a control were used: inoculation with E. agglomerans (treatment E), inoculation with G. etunicatum (treatment G), inoculation with E. agglomerans+G. etunicatum (treatment E+G) and the control (C). Inoculation with E, G, or E+G had increased plant growth by days 35, 55, and 75 compared with the control. Microbial biomass carbon (C) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere generally increased with time. Alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in treatments G and E+G compared with the control at 35 and 55 days. The highest acid phosphatase activity was observed in treatment E at 35 days; however, this markedly decreased with time. A significantly higher soluble phosphorus (P) concentration was observed in treatments E and E+G on day 55 compared with C. However, there was no significant difference in soluble P concentration in the rhizosphere between treatments with time. The P concentration was greatest in all treatments on day 55. The highest oxalic acid concentration was observed in the rhizosphere of the non-sterile soil in E+G on day 35. Total N and P uptake in plants from treatments E and G were higher compared with the control. However, the highest N and P uptake was observed in treatment E+G. This study suggests a synergistic interaction between E. agglomerans and G. etunicatum.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A study on the separation of lithium isotope was carried out with a 1,16-dioxa-4,7,10,13- tetraazacyclooctadecane-4,7,10,13-tetramerrifield peptide resin [N4O2·4M]. The resin having N4O2 as an anchor group has a capacity of 3.8 meq/g. Upon column chromatography [0.15 cm (I.D)×29 cm (height)] using 0.01 M NH4Cl as an eluent, the single separation factor, α=1.038 was obtained by the Glueckauf theory from the elution curve and isotope ratios.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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