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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: Cereport ; bradykinin B2 receptor ; human ; brain endothelium ; permeability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. To study Cereport (RMP-7, bradykinin B2 agonist) effects on human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) monolayer permeability. Methods. HBMEC grown on transwell membranes were exposed to Cereport. The monolayer permeability was determined with [I4C]-inulin (MW. 5,200) and [3H]-dextran (MW. 70,000). Results. Cereport increased the HBMEC permeability to [l4C]-inulin, but not to [3H]-dextran. The effect was transient, maximal at 15 min (i.e., 79.3% increase), and polarized to the basolateral membrane. An inverted U, dose-response curve was observed with active concentrations of Cereport from 0.01 to 0.5 nmol/L, the plateau maximal effect between 0.5 and 10 nmol/L, and loss of activity at the highest concentration, i.e., 20 nmol/L. Cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor rolipram (10 μmol/L) abolished Cereport effects, while cGMP-specific PDE5 inhibitor, zaniprast (50 μmol/L) enhanced by 31 % (p 〈 0.05) the effect of 0.1 nmol/L Cereport. Unlabeled Cereport displaced [12 5I]-bradykinin and/or [125I]-Cereport from the basolateral side. There was no specific Cereport binding to the apical side. Conclusions. Cereport exerts specific time, dose and size dependent actions on HMBEC monolayer that are restricted to the basolateral membrane. Its effects can be further modulated through changes in cAMP and cGMP second messenger systems.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The most virulent newborn meningitis-associated Escherichia coli are of the serotype O18: K1: H7. We previously isolated a large number of E. coli O18:K1:H7 mutants resulting from transposon TnphoA mutagenesis that fail to invade brain microvascular endothelial cells. We have now determined the locations of 45 independent insertions. Twelve were localized to the 98 min region, containing a 120 kb segment that is characteristic of E. coli O18:K1:H7. Another, the previously described insertion ibe-10::TnphoA, was localized to the 87 min region, containing a 20 kb segment found in this E. coli. These noninvasion mutations may define new O18:K1:H7 pathogenicity islands carrying genes for penetration of the blood-brain barrier of newborn mammals.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A central step in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) is the interaction of the bacteria with cells of the blood–brain barrier. In the present study, we analysed the invasive potential of two strains representing hypervirulent meningococcal lineages of the ET-5 and ET-37 complex in human brain-derived endothelial cells (HBEMCs). In contrast to previous observations made with epithelial cells and human umbilical vein-derived endothelial cells (HUVECs), significant internalization of encapsulated meningococci by HBMECs was observed. However, this uptake was found only for the ET-5 complex isolate MC58, and not for an ET-37 complex strain. Furthermore, the uptake of meningococci by HBMECs depended on the presence of human serum, whereas serum of bovine origin did not promote the internalization of meningococci in HBMECs. By mutagenesis experiments, we demonstrate that internalization depended on the expression of the opc gene, which is present in meningococci of the ET-5 complex, but absent in ET-37 complex meningococci. Chromatographic separation of human serum proteins revealed fibronectin as the uptake-promoting serum factor, which binds to HBMECs via α5β1 integrin receptors. These data provide evidence for unique molecular mechanisms of the interaction of meningococci with endothelial cells of the blood–brain barrier and contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of meningitis caused by meningococci of different clonal lineages.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Most cases of Escherichia coli K1 meningitis arise as a result of haematogenous spread, however there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms by which circulating E. coli K1 cross the blood–brain barrier. We have previously shown that environmental growth conditions both positively and negatively influence the capabilities of E. coli K1 to invade brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC), for example growth in media supplemented with 50% newborn bovine serum (NBS) increased BMEC invasion, whereas growth in media supplemented with 0.2 M NaCl repressed invasion in vitro and in vivo. In this study, differential fluorescence induction (DFI) was used to identify E. coli K1 genes involved in this differentially expressed invasion phenotype. E. coli K1 promoter libraries were constructed and screened for gfp expression in a manner analogous to the above growth conditions. Twenty-four clones were isolated that showed fluorescence induction when grown under the invasion-enhancing condition (i.e. NBS). Four of these clones also demonstrated repression or no induction of fluorescence when grown under the invasion-repressing condition (i.e. 0.2 M NaCl). One such clone, containing a ygdP promoter and an open reading frame (ORF), showed significant homology to Bartonella bacilliformis IalA (invasion associated locus). Among the other NBS-inducing loci, finPtraJ was identified as well as several clones with no homology to other known genes. When ygdP, finPtraJ and several of the unique loci were disrupted in E. coli K1, there was a significant decrease in human BMEC (HBMEC) invasion. RNA transcript analysis determined that these newly identified invasion loci were differentially regulated at the transcriptional level. This is the first demonstration of using DFI to identify E. coli K1 genes contributing to HBMEC invasion.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Escherichia coli K1 strains are predominant in causing neonatal meningitis. We have shown that invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) is a prerequisite for E. coli K1 crossing of the blood–brain barrier. BMEC invasion by E. coli K1 strain RS218, however, has been shown to be significantly greater with stationary-phase cultures than with exponential-phase cultures. Since RpoS participates in regulating stationary-phase gene expression, the present study examined a possible involvement of RpoS in E. coli K1 invasion of BMEC. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid isolates of E. coli K1 strains RS218 and IHE3034 have a nonsense mutation in their rpoS gene. Complementation with the E. coli K12 rpoS gene significantly increased the BMEC invasion of E. coli K1 strain IHE3034, but failed to significantly increase the invasion of another E. coli K1 strain RS218. Of interest, the recovery of E. coli K1 strains following environmental insults was 10–100-fold greater on Columbia blood agar than on LB agar, indicating that growing medium is important for viability of rpoS mutants after environmental insults. Taken together, our data suggest that the growth-phase-dependent E. coli K1 invasion of BMEC is affected by RpoS and other growth-phase-dependent regulatory mechanisms.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mortality and morbidity associated with neonatal gram-negative meningitis have remained significant despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Escherichia coli K1 is the most common gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis. Our incomplete knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease is one of the main reasons for this high mortality and morbidity. We have previously established both in vitro and in vivo models of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and hematogenous meningitis in neonatal rats, respectively. With these in vitro and in vivo models, we have shown that successful crossing of the BBB by circulating E. coli requires a high-degree of bacteremia, E. coli binding to and invasion of HBMEC, and E. coli traversal of the BBB as live bacteria. Our previous studies using TnphoA, signature-tagged mutagenesis and differential fluorescence induction identified several E. coli K1 determinants such as OmpA, Ibe proteins, AslA, TraJ and CNF1 contributing to invasion of HBMEC in vitro and traversal of the blood–brain barrier in vivo. We have shown that some of these determinants interact with specific receptors on HBMEC, suggesting E. coli translocation of the BBB is the result of specific pathogen–host cell interactions. Recent studies using functional genomics techniques have identified additional E. coli K1 factors that contribute to the high degree of bacteremia and HBMEC binding/invasion/transcytosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the successful E. coli translocation of the BBB.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To identify critical microbial determinant(s) in serum resistance and in vivo virulence, 5 strains of Escherichia coli with different combinations of K and O types were examined along with their unencapsulated mutants. All 3 E. coli strains possessing the K1 capsule were considerably more resistant to normal human serum in vitro and more virulent in newborn rats than their isogenic mutants lacking the K1 capsule. In contrast, two K5 encapsulated strains and their unencapsulated mutants were essentially the same for their degree of serum resistance and in vivo virulence. These findings suggest that for the demonstration of serum resistance and in vivo virulence, a capsule is required for E. coli strains encapsulated with K1, whereas certain E. coli strains encapsulated with K5 may not need a capsule.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: IgG 3 ; opsonic activity ; group B streptococci ; iv immunoglobulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Preparations of IgG 3 isolated by absorption of IgG 1, IgG 2, and IgG 4 from a human iv immunoglobulin with protein A-Sepharose were evaluated for their opsonic activities against type III group B streptococcal (GBS) strains. The resulting preparations were free of IgG 1 and IgG 2 and contained only trace amounts of IgG 4 (〈2% of total IgG). These IgG 3 preparations exhibited excellent opsonic activities against type III GBS strains, similar to those of the unfractionated iv immunoglobulin (based on total IgG concentrations in the opsonic assays). In contrast, preparations of IgG 1, 2, and 4 eluted from protein A-Sepharose with 2M acetic acid and 7M urea were significantly less effective in enhancing phagocytosis and killing of type III GBS than IgG 3 preparations or iv immunoglobulin. The reasons for excellent opsonic activity of IgG 3 preparations as well as for decreased opsonic activity of IgG 1, 2, and 4 preparations are not clear. Perhaps alteration of IgG by lower pH and high concentrations of urea may have impaired the functional activity of IgG 1, 2, and 4 preparations. The significant finding of this study is the first demonstration of the excellent opsonic activity of IgG 3, emphasizing the importance of having intact IgG 3 in commercial immunoglobulin preparations used in prophylaxis or treatment of GBS infections.
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