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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Deux cent onze patients atteints de hernie discale lombaire, confirmée par imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) et représentant 242 niveaux, ont été répartis en cinq groupes. Le diagnostic IRM a été comparé aux constatations opératoires afin d'évaluer de façon prospective la précision diagnostique de la classification IRM. Il n'y a pas eu d'exploration discale négative. Pour la distinction entre protrusion et autres types de hernie discale, la sensibilité, la spécificité et l'exactitude de l'IRM ont été respectivement de 92%, 91% et 92%. Pour la séquestration discale, la sensibilité a été de 92%, la spécificité de 99% et l'exactitude de 97%. En ce qui concerne l'extrusion sous-ligamentaire, on a noté une sensibilité de 71%, une spécifité de 82% et une exactitude de 79%, tandis que pour les extrusions trans-ligamentaires la sensibilité a été de 52%, la spécifité de 92% et l'exactitude de 79%. L'exactitude moyenne pour la prévision du type de hernie discale a donc été de 85%. L'IRM de haute résolution est donc très efficace pour la détection des lésions discales et leur classification.
    Notes: Summary Two hundred and eleven patients with lumbar disc herniation at 242 levels were divided into 5 groups by their appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings at operation were compared to assess the accuracy of the MRI classification. There were no negative explorations. There was 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 92% accuracy for MRI in distinguishing protruded discs from other forms of lumbar disc herniation. For sequestrated discs there was 92% sensitivity, 99% specificity and 97% accuracy. In the extruded subligamentous type there was 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity and 79% accuracy, and 52% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 81% accuracy in the extruded transligamentous type. The overall accuracy of MRI predicting the types of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc was 85%. High resolution MRI is sensitive in detecting disc disease and specific in characterizing various subgroups of disc herniation, especially those which are sequestrated.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 18 (1980), S. 407-411 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Streptozotocin diabetes in rat ; maternal diabetes ; neonatal macrosomia ; protein ; DNA ; DNA polymerase-α
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In order to determine the effect of maternal diabetes on the somatic growth of the rat fetus and to elucidate mechanisms underlying the control of fetal growth, concentrations of DNA and proteins and DNA polymerase-α activities in neonates were examined. The maternal status was classified as normal (no urinary glucose excretion), mildly diabetic (0.01–0.99 g/day urinary glucose), and severely diabetic (1.00 g/day or more urinary glucose). The total DNA contents in mg/neonate were 26.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± SEM), 31.3 ± 2.5, and 29.4 ± 2.7 for neonates from normal, mildly diabetic and severely diabetic mothers, respectively. The DNA polymerase activities in (cpm/g neonate) x 10-3 for the same groups of neonates were 432 ± 58, 1,008 ± 74, and 888 ± 118, respectively. These results indicate that the neonatal macrosomia disappears as the severity of maternal diabetes increases. Furthermore, DNA polymerase is one of possible biochemical sites through which macrosomia is manifested in diabetic pregnancies.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Key words: CT, abdomen—Contrast agent, administration—Gastrointestinal tract.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We introduce the modified drip ingestion method (MDIM) of administering oral contrast material for abdominal computed tomography (CT) in patients after gastrectomy. MDIM consists of the drip ingestion method, which we have recently reported, with additional ingestion of effervescent agent. MDIM in abdominal CT is a useful technique to improve the degree of distention of the gastrointestinal lumen including anastomotic sites in patients after gastrectomy.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 20 (1981), S. 213-216 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Streptozotocin diabetes in rat ; fetal macrosomia ; rate of substrate influx ; leucine influx ; thymidine influx ; AIB influx
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mild diabetes (blood glucose ranging from 130 to 200 mg/100 ml) was induced in female rats by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. Fetuses obtained from these diabetic mothers on 20.5, 19.5 and 18.5 days of gestation were compared with corresponding fetuses from control mothers. Macrosomia was defined as a fetus whose body weight exceeded the mean + 2.5 SD of fetal weight obtained from the control fetal population. Similarly, the rate of substrate influx was considered abnormally high when an individual value (cpm/g tissue of radioactive tracer) exceeded mean + 2.5 SD of control value. The frequencies of macrosomia in control groups and in diabetic groups were 1/98 and 15/110 respectively, on 20.5 day of gestation, 1/155 and 14/ 148 on 19.5 day, and 0/99 and 0/98 on 18.5 day. The rates of influx of thymidine, leucine, and alphaaminoisobutyric acid from maternal side to the macrosomic fetuses were increased as much as 20 times the corresponding rates in control fetuses. Despite the lack of macrosomia as defined here in the fetal population on 18.5 day of gestation, a significantly larger proportion of litters from diabetic mothers (5 litters/5 litters) contained one or more fetuses showing abnormally high rate of thymidine influx than the litters from control mothers (0 litter/5 litters). These results suggest that only a selected few fetuses in a litter from a diabetic mother become macrosomic and a marked stimulation in the rate of metabolite influx into fetuses precedes the manifestation of macrosomia.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report multiple occurrences of various kinds of tumours that originate from hair follicles in a patient diagnosed with KID (keratitis, ichthyosis, deafness) syndrome. These tumours are diagnosed as: (i) trichilemmal cysts in early lesions; (ii) proliferating trichilemmal tumours in moderate duration lesions; and (iii) malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumours in advanced lesions that are thought to progress from benign trichilemmal lesions. This three-step process raises the hypothesis of a multihit model that could account for the frequent development of tumours in KID patients.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background With β-agonists being the most widely used agents in the treatment of asthma, in vitro studies reported that β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphisms are associated with agonist-promoted down-regulation.Objective The present population-based study aimed to evaluate the association between bronchodilating response to inhaled short-acting β-agonist and two non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADRB2 (ADRB2-16 and ADRB2-27).Methods Two hundred and nine children with reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s of more than 20% on methacholine bronchial challenge underwent bronchodilating response testing 5 min after the inhalation of 200 μg of albuterol. Of these 209, 195 gave peripheral blood for genotyping of ADRB2 polymorphisms.Results The bronchodilating response was significantly higher in subjects with the homozygous Arg16 than in those with the homozygous Gly16. It was further demonstrated that haplotype pairs of the homozygous Arg16Gln27 and of the heterozygous Arg16Gln27/Gly16Glu27 showed the highest bronchodilating responses, and the haplotype pairs of the homozygous Gly16Gln27 the lowest response. As a whole, the bronchodilating response was more positively associated with the combined quantity of Arg16 and Glu27 polymorphisms than with that of Arg16 alone.Conclusion Non-synonymous SNPs of ADRB2 at codons 16 and 27 is significantly associated with bronchodilating response to inhaled short acting β-agonists.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Our previous work on linkage analysis showed that histamine release from basophils to anti-IgE stimuli was linked to the gene marker of chromosome 11q13, where the β chain of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI-β) is located.Objective  To evaluate the association between FcεRI-mediated histamine release from basophils and four bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms of the FcεRI-β gene.Methods  Phenotypes of asthma, such as maximal histamine release from basophils and atopy, were measured from 80 randomly recruited asthmatic children. Polymorphisms of the FcεRI-β gene were determined by PCR-based methods.Results  The polymorphism in exon 7, resulting in Glu to Gly substitution, was significantly associated with histamine release from basophils to anti-IgE stimuli, but not with total IgE levels and skin test responses to aeroallergens.Conclusion This study supports a role for the FcεRI-β gene in the expression of high affinity IgE receptor-mediated histamine release from basophils.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Recent investigations have demonstrated that the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri, CRM) is the most important allergen in citrus fruit farmers with asthma and rhinitis and a common sensitizing allergen in children living near citrus orchards.Objective To evaluate the sensitization rate to CRM and the association between sensitization to CRM and atopic diseases, such as athma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, in adolescents living in rural areas with citrus orchards.Methods A total of 2005 adolescents (aged from 16 to 18 years) living in rural areas with citrus orchards were enrolled. Subjects were evaluated by a questionnaire and a skin prick test with 11 common aeroallergens including CRM.Results The prevalences of current wheeze, rhinoconjuntivitis, and eczema on the questionnaire were 13.0%, 13.6%, and 8.8%, respectively. On skin prick tests, the most common sensitizing allergen was CRM [20.6%], followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (18.5%), D. farinae (14.6%) and cockroach (9.8%). The prevalence of current eczema was significantly associated with the sensitization to CRM (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.9), although the prevalence of current wheeze and rhinoconjunctivitis was not associated with it. Among adolescents living near citrus orchards, however, the prevalences of current wheeze and rhinoconjuncitivitis were significantly higher in those with sensitization to only CRM than in those without sensitization to any allergens (20.3% vs. 14.1% and 20.3% vs. 15.0%, P 〈 0.05, respectively).Conclusion CRM is the most common sensitizing allergen in adolescents living in rural areas with citrus orchards, and sensitization to CRM was significantly associated with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although asthma is a common cause of morbidity in adults, relatively few objectively measured population studies of asthma prevalence in adult populations have been conducted.Objective To evaluate the prevalence of asthma, based on both a questionnaire and methacholine bronchial provocation test, and to determine the risk factors of asthma prevalence in an adult population.Methods A total of 2467 adults, who were randomly selected from metropolitan urban, non-metropolitan urban and rural areas, responded to the modified ISAAC questionnaire, and underwent methacholine bronchial provocation tests and skin prick tests to locally common aeroallergens.Results The prevalence of current asthma based on the questionnaire and the methacholine challenge was 2.0% in adults younger than 40, 3.8% in 40- to 54-year-olds, 7.7% in 55- to 64-year-olds and 12.7% in those aged 65 or higher. For subjects of 55–64 years, active smoking was found to be significantly related with the prevalence of current asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, although smoking was positively associated with percentage predictive value of forced expiratory volume of 1 s (FEV1).Conclusion The prevalence of current asthma is common among the elderly, and active smoking may play an important role in the development of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness among the elderly.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: There have been few reported cases of occupational asthma induced by Pinellia ternata (Banha), and the mechanism responsible for this type of asthma is still undetermined. We report a case of Banha-induced occupational asthma with IgE-mediated mechanism. The patient had positive skin responses to Banha extract and Banha-specific bronchial challenge elicited an early asthmatic response. The serum-specific IgE binding to Banha extract was detectable and completely inhibited with the additions of 0.1 µg/mL of Banha extract on ELISA inhibition. Seven IgE binding components to Banha extract (6.5, 22, 24, 32, 34, and 48 kDa) were detected using SDS–PAGE and immunoblot analysis. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that P. ternata (Banha)-derived allergens are able to cause IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers.
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