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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster ; Pattern formation ; Neurogenesis ; Peripheral nervous system ; Microchaetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The small bristles (microchaetes) on the thorax of adult Drosophila are evenly spaced. We have analysed the development of this pattern using the enhancer trap line A101 where bacterial lacZ is expressed in the microchaete sensory mother cells (SMCs) and their progeny. We observed that the precursor cells appear in a stereotyped pattern of rows. Within each row, however, SMCs appear neither at a time nor in a restricted sequence: new SMCs are continuously intercalated between pre-existing SMCs until the distance between consecutive SMCs does not exceed a few cell diameters. In large individuals, additional SMCs may occasionally appear after the completion of the rows, in the largest empty spaces between the preexisting SMCs.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 3 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: The results of subjective experiments to evaluate the efficiency of portable air cleaners for perceived air pollutants generated by tobacco smoke are described. The efficiency of the five types of air cleaners to remove perceived air pollutants was evaluated by a panel using the decipol unit, and the efficiency to remove particulate was evaluated from concentrations of particulate. It was found that the efficiency of the air cleaner in removing perceived air pollutants was quite different from that in removing particulate
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Zeitschrift 235 (2000), S. 727-746 
    ISSN: 0025-5874
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-2573
    Keywords: Calcium current ; Potassium current ; Parathyroid hormone ; Action potential ; QT intervals ; Guinea pigs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cardiac electrophysiologic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were studied in three different experimental models. Purified synthetic human parathyroid hormone (hPTH 1–84), at a dose of 30 ng/g body weight (BW), prolonged the QT interval of surface ECGs in intact guinea pigs. To further clarify the mechanisms of the QT prolongation caused by hPTH, the action potentials of guinea pig papillary muscle were recorded by conventional microelectrode techniques. hPTH (10−7 M) prolonged the action potential duration without changing the action potential amplitude, resting potential, maximal upstroke velocity of the action potential, or maximal repolarization rate. hPTH affected only the plateau phase, in a concentration-dependent fashion. The half-maximum concentration was 6.8 × 10−8M for action potential duration at 30% repolarization (APD30), 3.2 × 10−8M for APD50, and 2.1 × 10−8M for APD90. In isolated single guinea pig ventricular cells, the patch clamp method was used to record the slow inward calcium current (ICa) and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) responsible for the action potential plateau phase. hPTH increased the peak amplitude of ICa at +10mV by an average of 42%, and increased IK at +10mV by 85%. These results indicate that, in ventricular muscle, hPTH prolongs the action potential duration and QT interval by the balance of the prolongation effect on APD by enhancing the slow inward calcium current and the shortening effect on APD by enhancing the delayed rectifier potassium current.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The bcl-2 gene is known through its product, bcl-2 protein, which prevents apoptosis. and also by its expression in development, especially in sites characterized by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. In the developing tooth germ, bcl-2-protein is expressed in the epithelial component. In this study, we examined the expression of bcl-2 protein immunohistochemically in 25 ameloblastomas using a monoclonal antibody against anti-human bcl-2 oncoprotein. In all 25 cases, bcl-2 protein was found mainly in the outer layer of tumor cells, whereas the inner cells (stellate reticulum-like cells and squamoid cells) were negative. The bcl-2 protein is therefore thought to play a role in maintaining the stem-cell population in the peripheral layers of the tumor nests from which proliferating cells can be recruited.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 438 (2005), S. 229-233 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Drosophila fruitless (fru) gene product Fru has been postulated to be a neural sex determination factor that directs development of the central nervous system (CNS), thereby producing male-typical courtship behaviour and inducing male-specific muscle. Male-specific Fru protein is expressed ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains is reported to be associated with peptic ulcer disease in developed countries, but it is controversial in Asia. To investigate the relationship between the virulence factors of H. pylori and peptic ulcer disease in Japan, we compared these between ulcer and nonulcer patients.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Materials and Methods.Seventy-four strains of clinically isolated H. pylori obtained from 22 gastric ulcer (GU), 23 duodenal ulcer (DU), and 29 chronic gastritis (CG) patients were studied. The presence of vacA and cagA gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction method using two different primer sets. We evaluated the proliferation-inhibiting and lethal cytotoxicity of culture supernatants using the alamarBlue assay.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results.The vacA gene was identified in all strains by the original primers. S1 strains were found in 90.9% (20/22) from GU, 95.7% (22/23) from DU, and 96.6% (28/29) from CG patients. The prevalence of cagA gene determined by the first, and second primers was 90.9% (20/22), 90.9% (20/22) in strains from GU, 87.0% (20/23), 91.3% (21/23) from DU, and 86.2% (25/29), 89.7% (26/29) from CG patients, respectively. The supernatant showed cytolethal effect in 95.5% (21/22) of strains from GU, in 100% (23/23) from DU, and in 93.1% (27/29) from CG patients. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the virulence factors between H. pylori strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcers and those with chronic gastritis.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusions.These results indicate that cagA gene status and the proliferation-inhibiting and lethal cytotoxicity of supernatant are not reliable markers of ulcerogenicity of H. pylori in Japanese patients.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In preparation of the approval of Helicobacter pylori therapy by the Japanese national health system, the board of directors of the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research decided to prepare guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection for physicians in routine medical practice.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods.A guidelines preparation committee was formed and six meetings were held. Then, in December 1999, a consensus meeting was held in Kobe to obtain the opinions of general practitioners as well as experts from Europe, North America, and Asia.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Results. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is recommended in gastric or duodenal ulcer patients. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is recommended or gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma but it should be done at specialist institutions. The significance of H. pylori eradication therapy is still under evaluation in patients with hyperplastic polyps, chronic atrophic gastritis, non-ulcer dyspepsia and in patients after endoscopic mucosal resection of gastric cancer and after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. When diagnosing H. pylori infection, at least one of the tests requiring endoscopic biopsy (e.g. rapid urease test, histology, or culture) and tests not requiring biopsy (e.g. measurement of H. pylori antibody or urea breath test) should be used. Multiple tests are recommended to increase the accuracy. The drugs of first choice currently covered by the national health insurance system in Japan are: lansoprazole (30 mg) 1 capsule twice daily, amoxicillin (250 mg) 3 capsules twice daily, and clarithromycin (200 mg) 1–2 tablets twice daily. These three drugs should be administered after breakfast and dinner for 1 week.〈section xml:id="abs1-5"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusion.These guidelines are intended for utilization in routine medical practice after the Japanese national health system begins to cover the management of H. pylori infection.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two triple therapies with lansoprazole (LPZ)/amoxicillin (AMPC)/clarithromycin (CAM) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori were studied in multicenter, double-blind fashion to evaluate the eradication rate of H. pylori and safety of eradiation treatment in Japanese patients with H. pylori-positive active gastric ulcers or duodenal ulcers.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods.Patients were randomly chosen for the control treatment of LPZ 30 mg twice a day (b.i.d.; Group A-LPZ-only) or the test treatments of LPZ 30 mg plus AMPC 750 mg and CAM 200 mg b.i.d. (Group B-LAC200) and LPZ 30 mg, AMPC 750 mg and CAM 400 mg b.i.d. (Group C-LAC400). All eradication treatments lasted for a period of 7 days. Successful eradication was assessed by culture and gastric histology 1 month after completion of the ulcer treatment.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Results.The eradication rates of H. pylori in the full analysis set were 0% in Group A-LPZ-only, 87.5% in Group B-LAC200 and 89.2% in Group C-LAC400 for gastric ulcer and, 4.4% in Group A-LPZ-only, 91.1% in Group B-LAC200 and 83.7% in Group C-LAC400 for duodenal ulcer. The eradication rates of Group B-LAC200 and Group C-LAC400 were 89.2% (95% CI: 84.8–93.7%) and 86.4% (95%CI: 81.5–91.3%) in total in the full analysis set, 89% (95% CI: 84.3–93.7%) and 85.3% (95%CI: 80.1–90.5%) in the per protocol set. The eradication rates in Groups B-LAC200 and group C-LAC400 were statistically significantly higher than the rate in Group A-LPZ-only for both gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer patients (p 〈 .0001 for both).〈section xml:id="abs1-5"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusion.A satisfactorily high H. pylori eradication rate was obtained in Japanese ulcer patients with the triple therapy regimen consisting of LPZ 30 mg, AMPC 750 mg, and CAM 200 mg b.i.d.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of 1-week, low-dose triple therapy with lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (LCM) for the cure of H. pylori infection and to establish the adequate dosage of a new triple therapy for Japanese patients.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Materials and Methods.One hundred four H. pylori–positive Japanese patients were assigned alternatively to one of two groups: one to receive either 30 mg lansoprazole once in the morning, 200 mg clarithromycin twice daily, and 250 mg metronidazole twice daily for 1 week (LCM1; n = 52); the other to receive 30 mg lansoprazole once in the morning, 200 mg clarithromycin twice daily, and 500 mg metronidazole twice daily for 1 week (LCM2; n = 52). H. pylori infection was assessed by smear, culture, and histological assessment (Giemsa stain) performed before and 4 weeks after cessation of the therapy.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results.The overall cure rates of H. pylori infection were 92.3% (48 of 52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 85% to 100%) in LCM1 and 92.3% (48 of 52; 95% CI, 85% to 100%) in LCM2. The cure rates in the patients without prior treatment were 95.7% (44 of 46; 95% CI, 89%–100%) in LCM1 and 95.7% (45 of 47; 95% CI, 89%–100%) in LCM2. Minor side effects were observed in 7.7% of LCM1 and 9.6% of LCM2, respectively.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusion.The LCM1 regimen consisting of 30 mg lansoprazole once daily, 200 mg clarithromycin twice daily, and 250 mg metronidazole twice daily (the regular doses in ordinary use in Japan) is a highly effective and safe regimen for Japanese patients. LCM1 as a new triple therapy is a promising regimen for the first-line treatment of H. pylori infection in Japanese patients.
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