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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-2573
    Keywords: Regional hemodynamics ; Hydralazine ; Verapamil ; Skeletal muscle ; Ageing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Regional hemodynamic responses to the vasodilators, hydralazine (1mg/kg, i.v.) and verapamil (0.1 mg/kg/min, i.v.), were examined in conscious Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 15 and 50 weeks of age, using the radioactive microsphere method. The flow rates of heart and skeletal muscle in SHR were higher than those in WKY, and the flow rates of liver, kidney, intestines, and skin in SHR were lower than those in WKY. These differences between the regional blood flow in WKY and SHR were observed in both aged and young rats. The changes in organ blood flow induced by hydralazine and verapamil were similar for WKY and SHR in most organs. Both drugs increased the skeletal muscle blood flow in WKY and young SHR, but not in aged SHR, that is, the skeletal muscle blood vessels in aged SHR lost their vasodilatory response. These results suggest that, although a lack of vasodilatory responses in the skeletal muscle vasculature of aged SHR may be triggered by persistent hypertension, the vital organ vasculature maintains its normal vasodilating capacity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: HLA ; birch pollinosis ; T cell epitope ; Bet VI
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Birch pollen is a very common cause of nasal allergy (pollinosis) not only in Scandinavia, Europe, Canada, and the northern part of the United States but also in Hokkaido, Japan. We have previously reported a positive association between the HLA-DR9 phenotype and the development of birch pollen allergy in Japanese subjects. However, there is little information about T cell epitopes of birch pollen which are presented by HLA class II molecules other than HLA-DR9. Therefore, we analyzed the difference in T cell epitope usage in patients who had HLA-DR9 versus those who did not. Seven Japanese patients with birch pollinosis were studied. Some groups of peptides representing T cell epitopes (Betula verrucosa; Bet VI peptides, p7–33, p23–46, p138–160) appeared to be shared by the majority, while another peptide (Bet VI p72–95) was recognized predominantly by patients who expressed HLA-DR9 and/or HLA-DQ3 molecules. Moreover, seven T cell clones and eight T cell lines were generated from two patients who did not have HLA-DR9 or HLA-DQ3. Using some of these T cell clones/lines, we investigated the relationship between HLA class II molecules and antigenic peptides. One of these T cell clones recognized antigenic peptides in the context of the HLA-DQ1 molecule. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that the epitope on Bet VI can be presented by the HLA-DQ molecule.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: cytokines ; fish leukocytes ; immortalization ; fish interferon ; oncogenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Flatfish leukocytes were transfected with the expression plasmids of the v-myc, c-myc, c-fos, v-myb and c-Ha-ras oncogenes. Only cotransfection of c-Ha-ras with c-myc or c-fos resulted in complete immortalization of the cells. Interferon-like anti-viral protein was found in the cultured medium of the immortalized lymphocytes. The protein was purified by DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M ion exchange chromatography and WGA agarose affinity chromatography. The protein was a glycoprotein of about 16 kDa. The antiviral activity of the protein was trypsin-sensitive and was fairly stable at pH values from 4 to 8. The protein retained about 60% of the activity even at 60°C and showed a broad antiviral activity for various fish cells and viruses.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: fish iridovirus ; PCR diagnosis ; hybridization assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A new disease of epidemic proportions caused by fish viruses within the Iridoviridae family inflicts serious damage on red sea breams (Pagrus major) and striped jack (Caranx delicatissimus) populations grown in aquacultures in Japan. A partial segment of the fish iridoviral DNA was directly amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with synthetic primers designed from well conserved nucleotide sequences between the frog virus 3 (Ranavirus) and the silkworm iridescent virus type 6. The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the PCR fragment demonstrates a high correlation with a partial sequence from the frog virus 3. Using the PCR method with specific primers, we could detect three of four different known types of fish iridoviruses in diseased fishes. To construct more reliable detection methods specific for this viral family, DNA fragments which can specifically hybridize with all of the four known iridoviridae viral DNAs were screened from the genomic library of one iridoviridae strain. The hybridization assay, using a specific fragment which contains regions which are highly homologous with a characterized partial sequence from the frog virus 3, proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for fish iridoviral diseases.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied bioavailability, treatment schedule dependence, and therapeutic efficacy of orally administered MST-16, a novel derivative of bis(2,6-dioxopiperazine), against murine tumors and human tumor xenografts. The rate of its intestinal absorption was about 50%, and it was immediately metabolized to its parent compound, ICRF-154. Therapeutic efficacy of MST-16 was heavily dependent on the treatment schedule: 9 daily oral administrations and treatment every 4 h on day 1 only were much more effective against s.c.-implanted L1210 leukemia than a single dose or five daily administrations giving the same total dose. Orally administered MST-16 showed potent lifeprolonging effects (196%, 219% and 148%) in mice inoculated i.p. with P388, L1210 leukemia, and C-26 colon adenocarcinoma, respectively, but had no effect on B16 melanoma inoculated in the same way. MST-16 inhibited more than 80% growth of Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, and C-38 colon adenocarcinoma implanted s.c., but had only a minor effect on M5076 fibrosarcoma. Lung metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma was also effectively suppressed. Furthermore, MST-16 significantly inhibited growth of human colon, lung and breast cancers implanted s.c. in nude mice. We also made a kinetic analysis of the in vitro cell-killing effect by ICRF-154, the active form of MST-16 in vivo. It demonstrated a cell cycle phase-specific and time-dependent action, providing a reasonable explanation for the schedule-dependent therapeutic effect of MST-16.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spleen cells from an SJL mouse immunized with B10.S spleen cells were fused with the nonsecretor myeloma line NS.1. One established hybrid cell line continuously secreted antibody that recognized a new antigenic specificity, tentatively called “Ly-mll.” This newly found antigen is detectable on nearly 100 percent of spleen and lymph-node cells, 70 percent of bone-marrow cells, and 20 percent of thymus cells by direct cytotoxicity assays, and on the cells derived from kidney and liver. Strains that are Ly-mll (+) include C57BL/6, C57BL/10J, B10.S, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, and C57BL/KsJ. Other mouse strains so far tested are Ly-m11 (−). The strain distribution pattern distinguished Ly-mll from any known murine lymphocyte alloantigens, but it follows theH-3 a haplotype which is defined by skin transplantation. Linkage tests of nine congenic strains ofH-3 and/orH-13/a loci and five recombinant inbred lines including CXB, BXH, AKXL, SWXL, and BXD revealed no recombinations betweensH-3 andLy-m11 loci on chromosome 2. This newly discovered Ly-m11 alloantigen could itself constitute a minor histocompatibility antigen detectable by serological means.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spleen cells from a (BALB/cxC57BL/6)F1 mouse immunized with CBA/J spleen cells were fused with the myeloma cell line NS-1. One of the six established hybrid cell lines continuously secreted antibody that recognized a new antigenic specificity, tentatively called “Ly-10.1”. This newly found antigen is expressed on thymocytes, on splenic T and B cells, on bone-marrow cells, and on the cells derived from brain, kidney and liver. It is also expressed on a continuous cell line, 416B, with stem-cell characteristics. The unique tissue distribution and, furthermore, a distinct strain distribution pattern distinguishes Ly-10.1 from any known murine lymphocyte alloantigen. On the basis of reactivity with cells of the C57BL/6-Lyt-1a congenic strain, one gene governing Ly-10 expression is assigned to the Lyt-1 region of chromosome 19.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The discovery of several monoclonal antibodies provided the impetus to revisit the Ly-6 group of antigens. Our serological data point to the existence of at least five separate Ly-6 antigens. They are distinguished by the patterns of their tissue expression as (1) the classical Ly-6 alloantigen of peripheral lymphocytes (Ly-m6.2A), (2) a bone marrow cell-restricted antigen (Ly-m6.2B), (3) an antigen shared by bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes (Lym6.2C, possibly identical with H9/25),(4) an antigen expressed on bone marrow cells, thymocytes, and peripheral lymphocytes (Ly-m6.2D), and (5) an antigen occurring exclusively on lymphoblasts (Ly-m6.IE, similar to Ala-1). ThB is a sixth distinct antigen of the group. The assumption that separate antigens exist is supported by distinctive distribution patterns in normal and neoplastic tissues. The genes controlling Ly-6 antigens are closely linked, as they are transmitted as two haplotypes only. One incidence of a crossover within the Ly-6 region was observed: the Ly-6B.2 alloantigen was expressed in NZB mice, which type Ly-6.1 for other Ly-6 specificities.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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