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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 42 (1975), S. 255-261 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Methadone ; Mode of Withdrawal ; Body Weight ; Relapse ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Physical dependence on methadone was induced in rats by an initial “forced drinking” procedure and subsequently by i.p. administration of the drug. In a subsequent Experimental Phase of the study the physical dependence of one group was sustained by a “methadone maintenance” treatment, while two other groups were withdrawn from the drug, one gradually and one abruptly. When relapse trials were carried out during a Readdiction Phase it was found that the maintained group voluntarily consumed significantly greater amounts of methadone than did the two withdrawal groups. These groups did not differ between themselves but did in turn ingest significantly more methadone than a control group with no prior exposure to the drug. The characteristic loss of body weight reliably found during withdrawal from morphine was not demonstrated. This may have been due to the unexpected weight loss which occurred during the last stage of the initial Addiction Phase. The dependent variables of amount of methadone solution and the percentage of fluid consumed as methadone solution correlated highly. However the amount of methadone solution ingested was a better indicator of addiction liability as it was not influenced by fluctuations in the amount of water consumed by the animals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Arginine vasotocin ; Melatonin ; Exploration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Synthetic arginine vasotocin (AVT) was infused into rat brains either by intraventricular administration or by local infusion on the pineal body. Subsequently, exploratory behavior was analyzed in a hole board. The behavioral effects induced by this peptide were dependent on the time of day, i. e. the light or the dark phase. High intraventricular doses (0.4 μg) administered during the light phase altered exploratory activity such that the number of hole visits was increased, while the duration of each visit was decreased; lower doses producted no effect. In contrast, during the dark phase, peripineal infusion of AVT (10-4 pg) attenuated the number of hole visits and increased the mean duration of the visits. The strongest effects were obtained with peripineal applications during the dark phase. This treatment also resulted in significantly lowered levels of pineal melatonin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 29 (1973), S. 1166-1167 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Deep-water shrimps, distributed on the steep outer reef slopes of tropical Pacific Islands, were obtained by setting baited traps in depths down to 850 m in the vicinity of Laucala Bay, Fiji, over the period 1979 to 1983. Life-history variables were estimated and interspecific comparisons made between Parapandalus serratifrons, Plesionika longirostris, Heterocarpus ensifer, H. gibbosus, H. sibogae, H. laevigatus (Pandalidae) and Saron marmoratus (Hippolytidae) which have different depth distributions. Results suggested that, interspecifically, reproductive lifespan tended to increase with increasing depth of distribution and that mean egg sizes of each species increased with increasing depth. Brood sizes tended to increase inconsistently with depth, although relative brood size (number of eggs per “standar” 15 g individual) appeared unrelated to depth. Although annual reproductive effort varied inconsistently with depth, reproductive effort totalled over the lifespan of the Heterocarpus species tended to increase with increasing depth. Some of the findings are counter to competition-based ecological theory, and it is proposed that adult predation decreases with increasing depth, allowing deeper-water species to have an extended lifespan, an increased degree of iteroparity, and a corresponding increase in lifetime reproductive effort. Further, we suggest that the probabilities of larval survival, which appear to decrease with increasing depth, are offset by the production of larger eggs by deeper-water species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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