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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective  To investigate uterotubal transport by means of hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) in women with and without endometriosis.Design  A prospective observational study.Setting  University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Reproductive Medicine and Gynaecologic Endocrinology with 350 in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles and 400 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles/year.Population  Cases included 56 infertile women with laparoscopic proven endometriosis and patent fallopian tubes. Twenty-two women with partners suffering from male factor infertility served as controls.Methods  A diagnostic cycle incorporating HSSG was performed. Subsequently, patients underwent either four cycles of timed intercourse (TI) or IUI in order to achieve pregnancy. If pregnancy did not occur, IVF or ICSI was performed.Main outcome measures  Evaluation of uterotubal transport capacity in women with endometriosis and healthy controls.Results  Patients suffering from endometriosis (group I) showed a significant reduction in physiologic uterotubal transport function: While 20 patients (36%) had ipsi- or bilateral uterotubal transport, there was pathological uterotubal transport contralateral to the dominant follicle or a complete failure of transport capacity (negative HSSG) in 36 patients (64%). In the controls (group II), transport function was significantly different: 15 of 22 patients (68%) revealed ipsi- and bilateral tubal demonstration, while 5 patients (22%) showed contralateral transport and 2 patients (10%) showed negative HSSG (P= 0.01). Twenty-three pregnancies were observed (pregnancy rate: 29%). Eleven out of 14 (79%) women with ipsi- or bilateral tubal transport function fell pregnant by means of TI or IUI. In seven of nine patients (78%) with a failure in tubal transport, pregnancy was achieved by IVF/ICSI, despite acceptable semen parameters (P= 0.01).Conclusions  Endometriosis is significantly associated with a reduction in physiologic uterotubal transport capacity compared with controls. This resulted in diminished pregnancy rates even in women with normozoospermic partners. Therefore, IVF/ICSI may be required even when fallopian tubes are patent or semen quality is normal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Influenza epidemics vary in intensity from year to year, driven by climatic conditions and by viral antigenic evolution. However, important spatial variation remains unexplained. Here we show predictable differences in influenza incidence among cities, driven by population size and structure. Weekly incidence data from 603 cities in the United States reveal that epidemics in smaller cities are focused on shorter periods of the influenza season, whereas in larger cities, incidence is more diffuse. Base transmission potential estimated from city-level incidence data is positively correlated with population size and with spatiotemporal organization in population density, indicating a milder response to climate forcing in metropolises. This suggests that urban centers incubate critical chains of transmission outside of peak climatic conditions, altering the spatiotemporal geometry of herd immunity.
    Keywords: Engineering, Epidemiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-13
    Description: Multiple autoimmune pathologies are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the human gene TAGAP , which encodes TAGAP, a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)–activating protein. We showed in mice that Tagap-mediated signaling by the sema3E/plexin-D1 ligand-receptor complex attenuates thymocytes’ adhesion to the cortex through their β 1 -containing integrins. By promoting thymocyte detachment within the cortex of the thymus, Tagap-mediated signaling enabled their translocation to the medulla, which is required for continued thymic selection. Tagap physically interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of plexin-D1 and directly stimulated the activity and signaling of the GTPase RhoA. In addition, Tagap indirectly mediated the activation of Cdc42 in response to the binding of sema3E to plexin-D1. Both RhoA and Cdc42 are key mediators of cytoskeletal and integrin dynamics in thymocytes. Knockdown of Tagap in mice suppressed the sema3E- and plexin-D1–mediated release of thymocytes that adhered within the cortex through β 1 -containing integrins. This suppression led to the impaired translocation of thymocytes from the cortex to the medulla and resulted in the formation of ectopic medullary structures within the thymic cortex. Our results suggest that TAGAP variation modulates the risk of autoimmunity by altering thymocyte migration during thymic selection.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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