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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2196
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusion Activation of T cell may be accomplished following the interaction of the TCR-CD3 complex with antigen and MHC products. In vitro this may be replaced by antibodies to the TcR or CD3 complex which mimic ligand binding. So called “alternative pathways” may also trigger activation. Activational state may be measured by lymphokine production, proliferative capacity or by expression of activation antigens. By these criteria a proportion of T cells isolated from rheumatoid joints appear to have undergone an in vivo activation. Phenotypic analysis of the synovial T cells has also established that there is an unusual distribution of Tγδ and Tαβ cells and T cell subsets in many rheumatoid patients. As T cells play a central role in immunoregulation, further exploitation of these observations using T cell clones and molecular techniques will extend our understanding of the disease process. In particular, further knowledge is required on the possible role of Tγδ cells in RA, the clonality of the T cells, the possible use of “alternative” activation pathways, and ultimately, the specificity of these T cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to characterize the extent of immune, endocrine, substrate and metabolic changes during a long-distance cross-country ski race in extremely well-trained athletes and evaluate if the blood perturbations would indicate signs of health risk. Ten male (M) and six female (F) national team skiers were investigated as they followed their usual routines of race preparations. Blood samples were drawn before and immediately after a World Cup 50-km M and 30-km F ski race with a mean finish time of 142 and 104 min, respectively. Hemoglobin, electrolytes, and C-reactive protein remained unchanged for both M and F. Serum testosterone remained unchanged in M, but doubled in F. Significant increases were observed in concentrations of granulocytes (F: 5×, M: 5×), natural killer cells (F: 2×, M: 1.5×), adrenaline (F: 12×, M:10×), noradrenaline (F: 7×, M:5×), growth hormone (F: 30×, M: 22×), cortisol (F: 1.5×, M:2×), glucose (F: 2×, M:1.5×), creatine kinase (F: 2×, M:2×), uric acid (F: 1.5×, M: 1.5×) and non-organic phosphate (F:2×, M:2×), while insulin concentration decreased (F: 0.5×, M: 0.8×). Free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased (F:2×, M: 3×). In conclusion, we observed substantial changes in several immuno-endocrine, substrate and metabolic measurements after long distance cross-country ski racing and suggest that some of these marked changes may reflect the large amount of muscle mass involved during skiing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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