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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Rhine ; river regulation ; water quality ; aquatic bryophyte zonation ; refugia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A study of the zonation of the aquatic bryophyte assemblages from the Anterior Rhine to the Middle Rhine is presented. The typology obtained differs from the hydrogeomorphological classification because the correction of the river has led to the homogenization of habitats. Since the straightening of the river in the course of the 19th century, the embankments have created more stable habitats on which mountain species formerly characteristic of the rapids of the High Rhine appeared. During the 20th century, regulation, the construction of hydroelectric powerstations even the canalization of the river in Alsace, have caused a great change in water level. On the Upper Rhine, the regularisation of the water level allowed the appearance and the spread of strict hydrophytes such as Octodiceras fontanumwhich is now common between Rastatt and Bonn. Conversely, species characteristic of variable water levels decreased or disappeared. The industrial development along the river has caused water quality to severely decrease downstream of the industrial areas, hence the decrease or the disappearance of their primary flora in favour of pollution-tolerant assemblages. The former side channels of the Upper Rhine in France that have been disconnected from the main river and fed by groundwater since canalization, possess a bryophyte flora very similar to that of good quality waters in the upstream part of the High Rhine or in the Alpine Rhine. This flora is the last regional relic of a flora that has disappeared from the main channel due to water pollution. These refugia should consequently be preserved from the flooding of alluvial forests, part of the flood management program.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: river-groundwater exchange ; floodplain ; aquatic macrophyte community ; phosphate ; mercury ; river Ill
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The floodplain of the river Ill in the Alsace Rhine valley is used as a model to study river-groundwater exchange process. Groundwater-fed streams located in the Ill floodplain are analysed using three methods: an analytical method based on hydrochemical variables (Cl− NO3 −, PO 4 3− and NH4 +), a phytosociological one based on surveys of aquatic macrophyte communities and a biological method based on the accumulation of mercury in the moss Fontinalis antipyretica. The results show that the eutrophicated and polluted river Ill (660 µg l−1 N-NH4 +, 500 µg l−1 P-PO 4 3− , 0.3–0.4 mg Hg kg− dry weight of moss) has a negative effect on the groundwater via the bed, depending on the level of the river bed in relation to the groundwater table level. Upstream of Colmar in the south of the Alsace floodplain, the Ill waters infiltrate and contaminate the groundwater, but this is not the case further downstream. Along a stretch of the Ill (40 km) annual floods provide eutrophicated and polluted waters to the aquifer. However these waters are purified during their transfer through the soil-vegetation system. Thus in the groundwater-fed streams the water is characterised by a low level of phosphate, ammonium nitrogen and mercury (10–20 µg l−1 N-NH4 + and P-PO 4 3− , 〈 0.05 mg Hg kg−1 dry weight of moss). We demonstrate the importance of a functional floodplain in replenishing the aquifer with poor-nutrient waters. The aquatic vegetation of groundwater-fed streams reflects the water quality and thus can be used as a bioindicator and descriptor of river-groundwater exchange process.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0167-4838
    Keywords: (Rat) ; Binding factor ; Fc receptor ; IgA immunoglobulin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Key words Scoliosis ; Scoliosis ; deformity ; Scoliosis ; vertebra ; Scoliosis ; rib ; Scoliosis ; biomechanics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Although the structural changes occurring in the scoliotic spine have been reported as early as the 19th century, the descriptions and biomechanical explanations have not always been complete and consistent. In this study, three-dimensionally rendered CT images of two human skeletons with a scoliotic deformity and two patients with serious scoliosis were used to describe the intrinsic vertebral and rib deformities. The pattern of structural deformities was found to be consistent. Apart from the wedge deformation of the apical vertebrae, a rotation deformity was found in the transversal plane between the vertebral body and the posterior complex: the vertebral body was maximally rotated towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, whereas the tip of the spinous process was pointed to posterior. The rib deformities at the convex side of the scoliotic curve showed an increased angulation of the rib at the posterior angle, whereas the rib curve on the concave side was flattened. The observed vertebral deformities suggest that these are caused by bone remodelling processes due to forces in the anterior spinal column, which drive the apical vertebral body out of the midline, whereas forces of the musculo-ligamentous structures at the posterior side of the spinal column attempt to minimize the deviations and rotations of the vertebrae. The demonstrated rib deformities suggest an adaptation to forces imposed by the scoliotic spine.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Respiratory rhythm ; Postinspiratory phase ; Apneic states ; Tachypneic states ; Medullary respiratory neurons ; Laryngeal afferents ; Pulmonary afferents ; Carotid sinus afferents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were performed on anesthetized cats to test the theory that the interval between phrenic bursts is comprised of two phases, stage I and stage II of expiration. Evidence that these represent two separate neural phases of the central respiratory rhythm was provided by the extent to which stage duration is controlled individually when tested by superior laryngeal, vagus and carotid sinus nerve stimulation. Membrane potential trajectories of bulbar postinspiratory neurons were used to identify the timing of respiratory phases. Stimulation of the superior laryngeal, vagus and carotid sinus nerves during stage I of expiration prolonged the period of depolarization in postinspiratory neurons without significantly changing the durations of either stage II expiratory or inspiratory inhibition, indicating a fairly selective prolongation of the first stage of expiration. Changes in subglottic pressure, insufflation of smoke into the upper airway, application of water to the larynx or rapid inflation of the lungs produced similar effects. Sustained tetanic stimulation of superior laryngeal and vagus nerves arrested the respiratory rhythm in stage I of expiration. Membrane potentials in postinspiratory, inspiratory and expiratory neurons were indicative of a prolonged postinspiratory period. Thus, such an arrhythmia can be described as a postinspiratory apneic state of the central oscillator. The effects of carotid sinus nerve stimulation reversed when the stimulus was applied during stage II expiration. This was accompanied by corresponding changes in the membrane potential trajectories in postinspiratory neurons. The results manifest a ternary central respiratory cycle with two individually controlled phases occurring between inspiratory bursts.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Atlas bipartita ; Cleft atlas ; Fusion defect ; Klippel-Feil ; Cervical spine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le cas d'un patient ayant un syndrome de Klippel-Feil et présentant des cervicalgies après un traumatisme est décrit. Aucune fracture n'était trouvée, mais une fente médiane sur les arcs atloïdiens ventraux et dorsaux était constatée, ce qui représente un cas très rare d'anomalie congénitale.
    Notes: Summary A patient with the Klippel-Feil syndrome is described who presented with pain in the neck after a trauma. No fractures were found. Instead, a midline cleft in both the anterior and posterior atlantic arches was found which represents an extremely rare congenital anomaly.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Atlas bipartita ; Cleft atlas ; Fusion defect ; Klippel-Feil ; Cervical spine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A patient with the Klippel-Feil syndrome is described who presented with pain in the neck after a trauma. No fractures were found. Instead, a midline cleft in both the anterior and posterior atlantic arches was found which represents an extremely rare congenital anomaly.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This article gives a short summary of the performances of the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) so far built by the Grenoble laboratory; emphasis is given to the high B field Caprice source, a compact in size source delivering high charge states and high intensities. Both the continuous regime of operation, and the pulsed regime having performances enhanced by the afterglow effect, as well as other noticeable effects, are surveyed. The next part of the article deals with the analysis of the data and our present understanding of the ECRIS behavior. At last the present trends of development of ECRIS are examined.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been especially designed to permit physical studies of the plasma; this paper describes the source itself (which has been operated at 10 GHz in a first step), its preliminary performances, and the different diagnostics involved, which mainly concern the electron population [electron cyclotron emission (ECE), x rays, diamagnetism, microwave interferometer, and electron analyzer]. The results are presented and discussed: There is of course a close relationship between the parameters of the plasma and the performances of the source; this point will be discussed in the article.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been especially designed to permit physical studies of the plasma; this paper describes the source itself (which has been operated at 10 GHz in a first step), its preliminary performances, and the different diagnostics involved, which mainly concern the electron population (ECE, x rays, diamagnetism, microwave interferometer, and electron analyzer). The results are presented and discussed: There is of course a close relationship between the parameters of the plasma and the performances of the source; this point will be discussed in the article.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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