Enteroviruses encode proteinases that are essential for processing of the translated viral polyprotein. In addition, viral proteinases also target host proteins to manipulate cellular processes and evade innate antiviral responses to promote replication and infection. Although some host protein substrates of enterovirus proteinases have been identified, the full repertoire of targets remains unknown. We used a novel quantitative in vitro proteomics-based approach, termed t erminal a mine i sotopic l abeling of s ubstrates (TAILS), to identify with high confidence 72 and 34 new host protein targets of poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases (3C pro s) in HeLa cell and cardiomyocyte HL-1 cell lysates, respectively. We validated a subset of candidate substrates that are targets of poliovirus 3C pro in vitro including three common protein targets, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (PFAS), hnRNP K, and hnRNP M, of both proteinases. 3C pro -targeted substrates were also cleaved in virus-infected cells but not noncleavable mutant proteins designed from the TAILS-identified cleavage sites. Knockdown of TAILS-identified target proteins modulated infection both negatively and positively, suggesting that cleavage by 3C pro promotes infection. Indeed, expression of a cleavage-resistant mutant form of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi vesicle-tethering protein p115 decreased viral replication and yield. As the first comprehensive study to identify and validate functional enterovirus 3C pro substrates in vivo , we conclude that N-terminomics by TAILS is an effective strategy to identify host targets of viral proteinases in a nonbiased manner. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that encode proteases that cleave the viral polyprotein into the individual mature viral proteins. In addition, viral proteases target host proteins in order to modulate cellular pathways and block antiviral responses in order to facilitate virus infection. Although several host protein targets have been identified, the entire list of proteins that are targeted is not known. In this study, we used a novel unbiased proteomics approach to identify ~100 novel host targets of the enterovirus 3C protease, thus providing further insights into the network of cellular pathways that are modulated to promote virus infection.