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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 diabetes ; HLA-A2 ; age association ; Pima Indians ; diabetes ; genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In Pima Indians with Type 2 (insulin independent) diabetes mellitus, HLA-A2 allele frequencies were inversely associated with age, (0.72, 0.59, and 0.52 in those less than 35, 35 to 54, and 55 years old and over, respectively). This suggests that there may be a gene closely linked with the HLA-A locus which plays a role in the expression of diabetes in the Pimas by contributing to an earlier age of onset. HLA-A2 was found in 65% of 69 non-diabetic and 81% of 191 diabetic subjects (relative risk = 2.2).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: End-stage renal disease ; diabetic nephropathy ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes ; incidence ; Pima Indians
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The incidence of end-stage renal disease was determined in the Pima Indians of the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, a population with a high prevalence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Between 1975 and 1986, from a study population of 5059 subjects, end-stage renal disease occurred in 80 persons, 76 (95%) of whom had Type 2 diabetes. A review of the cases with end-stage renal disease indicated that among the diabetic subjects only two cases could be attributed to nondiabetic renal disease; all other cases were attributable to diabetic nephropathy. In diabetic Pima Indians the incidence rate of end-stage renal disease did not change during the study period, was similar in men and women, and was not effected by age at diagnosis of diabetes or by attained age, but did increase significantly with hypertension (p〈0.05). The incidence of end-stage renal disease attributed to diabetic nephropathy increased from 0 cases/1000 person-years at 0–5 years to 40.8 cases/1000 person-years at ≥ 20 years duration of diabetes. In these subjects with Type 2 diabetes, the incidence rate of end-stage renal disease was similar to that in subjects with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes who were followed at the Joslin Clinic in Boston, Massachusetts when those with similar duration of diabetes were compared.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Physical activity ; obesity ; fat distribution ; glucose intolerance ; Pima Indians ; exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationships between physical activity, obesity, fat distribution and glucose tolerance were examined in the Pima Indians who have the highest documented incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Fasting and 2-h post-load plasma glucose concentrations, body mass index, and waist-to-thigh circumference ratios were determined in 1054 subjects aged 15–59 years. Current (during the most recent calendar year) and historical (over a lifetime) leisure and occupational physical activity were determined by questionnaire. Current physical activity was inversely correlated with fasting and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations, body mass index and waist-to-thigh ratios for most sex-age groups even when diabetic subjects were excluded. Controlled for age, obesity and fat distribution, activity remained significantly associated with 2-h plasma glucose concentrations in males. In subjects aged 37–59 years, individuals with diabetes compared to those without reported significantly less leisure physical activity during the teenage years (median hours per week of activity, 9.1 vs 13.2 for men; 1.0 vs 2.2 for women). Controlled for body mass index, sex, age and waist-to-thigh ratio, subjects who reported low levels of historical leisure physical activity had a higher rate of diabetes than those who were more active. In conclusion, current physical activity was inversely related to glucose intolerance, obesity and central distribution of fat, particularly in males. Subjects with diabetes were currently less active and reported less historical physical activity than non-diabetic subjects. These findings suggest that activity may protect against the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes both directly and through an influence on obesity and fat distribution.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Impaired glucose tolerance ; insulin response ; cholesterol.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Risk factors predicting deterioration to diabetes mellitus were examined in 181 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Fifty-seven subjects had impaired glucose tolerance on one occasion followed by normal glucose tolerance at a repeat oral glucose tolerance test, and 124 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance on two successive oral glucose tolerance tests. Subjects were followed for a median period of 5.0 years (range 1.0–17.2). The age- and sex-adjusted cumulative incidence of diabetes at 10 years of follow-up was higher in subjects who had impaired glucose tolerance on both tests (70 %) than in those whose glucose tolerance was normal at the repeat test (53 %), [rate ratio (RR) = 1.6, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) = 1.0–2.5]. Proportional hazards analyses were used to identify baseline risk factors (measured at the repeat oral glucose tolerance test) for subsequent diabetes, and incidence rate ratios were calculated for the 90th percentile compared with the 10th percentile of each continuous variable for the whole group. In all subjects, in separate models, higher body mass index [RR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 2.2–9.9], high fasting serum insulin concentrations [RR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.4–4.2], and low early insulin response [RR = 0.5, 95 % CI = 0.3–0.8] 30 min after a glucose load were significant predictors for deterioration to diabetes. In a multivariate analysis which controlled for age and sex, 120-min post-load glucose, fasting insulin and late insulin response predicted diabetes. In subgroup analyses the predictors of diabetes were generally similar in subjects who had impaired glucose tolerance at only one test and those who had impaired glucose tolerance on both tests. These findings suggest that in those subjects with impaired glucose tolerance whose glucose tolerance has returned to normal, the risk of subsequent diabetes is high. Insulin resistance, impaired early insulin response, or both, are predictive of subsequent development of diabetes in Pima Indians with impaired glucose tolerance. [Diabetologia (1995) 38: 187–192]
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Diabetes mellitus ; diagnosis ; oral glucose tolerance test ; fasting plasma glucose ; 2-h plasma glucose ; haemoglobin A1c ; retinopathy ; nephropathy ; complications.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The current classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus were introduced by the United States National Data Group in 1979 and endorsed by the World Health Organization in 1980, with modifications in 1985 and 1994. The criteria, chosen to reflect the risk of complications, were the synthesis of considerable thought and expertise and represented a consensus which, it was hoped, would prove helpful to all those involved with diabetes – practising clinician, research scientist and epidemiologist alike. The inconvenience, variability and nonphysiological nature of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are well-recognised. In spite of these limitations the 2-h post-load plasma glucose has remained the standard against which all other tests have been evaluated. This article reviews the original justification for the OGTT, and in the light of more recent epidemiological research seeks to place the current diagnostic criteria for diabetes into a pathophysiological, diagnostic and prognostic perspective. [Diabetologia (1997) 40: 247–255]
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: American Indians ; autoimmunity ; diabetes mellitus ; islet cell antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pancreatic islet cell antibodies and 12 other autoantibodies were measured at the time of diabetes diagnosis in 46 Pima Indians, aged 17–47 years, and in 46 age-sex matched non-diabetic controls. Islet cell antibodies were found in only two diabetics, aged 20 and 25, compared with none of 46 controls. Neither of the subjects with islet cell antibodies had other autoantibodies. At least one type of autoantibody was found in 14 (30%) of the diabetics and in 14 controls, but none was significantly associated] with diabetes. This study indicates that diabetes in the Pima Indians, even those with an onset below 25 years of age, is almost entirely of type II, in that the disease is not associated with islet cell antibodies, ketoacidosis, or insulin dependence.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Albuminuria ; prevalence ; diabetic nephropathy ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; impaired glucose tolerance ; American Indians
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prevalence of abnormal urinary albumin excretion, defined by a urine albumin to creatinine ratio〉-30 mg/g (approximately equivalent to an albumin excretion rate of 〉-30 mg/24 h), was determined in 2728 Pima Indians aged 〉-15 years from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, a population with a high prevalence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Excessive albumin excretion was present in 8% of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 15% of those with impaired glucose tolerance, and 47% of subjects with diabetes. The intermediate prevalence of abnormal albuminuria in those with impaired glucose tolerance suggests that hyperglycaemia even at levels below those diagnostic of diabetes is associated with renal abnormalities in some subjects and that these abnormalities may precede the onset of diabetes. Abnormal albuminuria at levels not reliably detected by the usual dipstick methods was commonly observed in Pima Indians with diabetes, even those with diabetes of recent onset. Associations were found with age, duration of diabetes, level of glycaemia, blood pressure, and treatment with insulin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycated haemoglobin A1 ; plasma glucose ; diabetic retinopathy ; risk factor ; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis ; Pima Indians
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Among Pima Indians with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus the relationships between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1), fasting or 2-h post-load plasma glucose and diabetic retinopathy were examined by cross-sectional and prospective analyses, and the strengths of the associations were directly compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. In the cross-sectional analysis, HbA1, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose were each significantly related to retinopathy among 789 diabetic subjects by separate logistic models. In a stepwise multiple logistic model in which HbA1, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose were included, HbA1 was selected as having the strongest association with retinopathy and neither fasting nor 2-h plasma glucose contributed significantly to the model once HbA1 was entered. Similarly, in the prospective analysis, HbA1, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose all predicted retinopathy in 227 diabetic subjects by separate proportional-hazards models. In a stepwise proportional-hazards model with HbA1, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose available to the model, HbA1 was again selected as having the strongest association with the incidence of retinopathy, and neither fasting nor 2-h plasma glucose significantly added to the prediction of retinopathy. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine if HbA1 was statistically significantly better than fasting or 2-h plasma glucose in assessing the risk for retinopathy. In neither the cross-sectional nor the prospective data did the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for HbA1 differ significantly from that for fasting or 2-h plasma glucose (p〉0.05 for each). In conclusion, HbA1, an integrated measure of blood glucose concentration over a period of 2–3 months, is slightly more closely associated with the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy than a single blood glucose determination. However, the differences between HbA1 and fasting or 2-h plasma glucose in assessing the association with or the risk for retinopathy are not significant.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Albuminuria ; risk factors ; blood pressure ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; Pima Indians
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Blood pressure was measured in 490 non-proteinuric Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona at least 1 year before the diagnosis of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Urine albumin concentration was measured in the same subjects 0–24 years (mean 5 years) after diabetes was diagnosed. Prevalence rates of abnormal albumin excretion (albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥100 mg/g) after the onset of Type 2 diabetes were 9%, 16%, and 23%, respectively, for the lowest to highest tertiles of pre-diabetic mean blood pressure. When controlled for age, sex, duration of diabetes and pre-diabetic 2-h post-load plasma glucose concentration, higher pre-diabetic mean blood pressure predicted abnormal urinary excretion of albumin after the onset of diabetes. This finding suggests that the higher blood pressure seen in diabetic nephropathy is not entirely a result of the renal disease, but may precede and contribute to it.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus ; risk factors ; glucose ; insulin ; childhood
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Metabolic abnormalities antedate the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by some years. How these metabolic abnormalities relate to the genetic component of the disease and to the subsequent prediction of diabetes is unknown. The present study was designed to examine the association of parental diabetes with relative weight, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose and fasting and 2-h serum insulin in childhood, and to identify which of these variables were most predictive of subsequent NIDDM. Subjects comprised 1258 Pima Indians aged 5–19 years with normal glucose tolerance participating in a longitudinal population-based study. Age-sex-adjusted values of relative weight, fasting and 2-h glucose and fasting and 2-h insulin were positively associated with parental diabetes. Only one of 138 subjects with two non-diabetic parents developed diabetes. Among 1120 subjects with at least one diabetic parent, 101 (9.0%) developed diabetes during amean follow up of 8.4 years. Fastinginsulin was a significant predictor of diabetes, but did not add to the predictive value of relative weight. Relative weight and 2-h and fasting plasma glucose were the variables most predictive of NIDDM in childhood and adolescence. Against a background of parental diabetes, high fasting insulin concentrations predict diabetes, compatible with the hypothesis that insulin resistance is an early metabolic abnormality leading to NIDDM. In this study, however, its predictive power did not add significantly to that of relative weight, with which it was correlated. Both relative weight and 2-h plasma glucose in youth in those with diabetic parents are highly predictive of subsequent diabetes, and these may be the best measures currently available for identifying high-risk subjects in whom preventive measures might be targeted.
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