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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1405
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract When visual behaviors are combined to provide a specific functionality needed for a task, the combination is often based on heuristic rules. In this article we show that by adopting the Discrete-Event Systems (DES) formalism for describing the interaction between visual behaviors it is possible to provide systems that have well-defined properties in terms of observability and controllability. The method is in particular suited for describing the coupling between action and perception. An introduction to the use of DES is provided and it is demonstrated how DES are used for modeling behaviors and controlling a mobile robot equipped with a binocular camera head and some additional sensors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1405
    Keywords: differential epipolar constraint ; differential essential matrix ; optical flow ; motion estimation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this paper is to explore a linear geometric algorithm for recovering the three dimensional motion of a moving camera from image velocities. Generic similarities and differences between the discrete approach and the differential approach are clearly revealed through a parallel development of an analogous motion estimation theory previously explored in Vieville, T. and Faugeras, O.D. 1995. In Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 750–756; Zhuang, X. and Haralick, R.M. 1984. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, pp. 366–375. We present a precise characterization of the space of differential essential matrices, which gives rise to a novel eigenvalue-decomposition-based 3D velocity estimation algorithm from the optical flow measurements. This algorithm gives a unique solution to the motion estimation problem and serves as a differential counterpart of the well-known SVD-based 3D displacement estimation algorithm for the discrete case. Since the proposed algorithm only involves linear algebra techniques, it may be used to provide a fast initial guess for more sophisticated nonlinear algorithms (Ma et al., 1998c. Electronic Research Laboratory Memorandum, UC Berkeley, UCB/ERL(M98/37)). Extensive simulation results are presented for evaluating the performance of our algorithm in terms of bias and sensitivity of the estimates with respect to different noise levels in image velocity measurements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1405
    Keywords: camera self-calibration ; multilinear constraints ; reconstruction ambiguity ; reprojection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract The necessary and sufficient conditions for being able to estimate scene structure, motion and camera calibration from a sequence of images are very rarely satisfied in practice. What exactly can be estimated in sequences of practical importance, when such conditions are not satisfied? In this paper we give a complete answer to this question. For every camera motion that fails to meet the conditions, we give explicit formulas for the ambiguities in the reconstructed scene, motion and calibration. Such a characterization is crucial both for designing robust estimation algorithms (that do not try to recover parameters that cannot be recovered), and for generating novel views of the scene by controlling the vantage point. To this end, we characterize explicitly all the vantage points that give rise to a valid Euclidean reprojection regardless of the ambiguity in the reconstruction. We also characterize vantage points that generate views that are altogether invariant to the ambiguity. All the results are presented using simple notation that involves no tensors nor complex projective geometry, and should be accessible with basic background in linear algebra.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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