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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three strains of chick embryo adapted canine distemper virus (Lederle, Wisconsin, and Onderstepoort strains) and chick embryo adapted LA strain of rinderpest virus were easily adapted to an established line of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells), which has been routinely employed for the titration of measles virus. By using these Vero cell adapted strains of canine distemper and rinderpest viruses, techniques of infectivity titration and virus neutralization in Vero cells were established. Comparative studies of cytopathology and growth characteristics of canine distemper, rinderpest, and measles viruses indicated that the behavior of the three viruses in Vero cells is almost the same. The Vero cell system was suggested as a suitable host for the comparative study of the serologic and biologic relationships among measles, canine distemper, and rinderpest viruses.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of specific antigens of measles, canine distemper and rinderpest viruses in Vero cells was examined by fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques. Intracellular and extracellular virus antigens were demonstrated by FA staining of fixed cells and unfixed living cells, respectively. All the three viruses showed the same pattern of development of specific antigens in the same host cells. Both V and S antigens were considered to be synthesized exclusively in the cytoplasm. The antigenic correlation among the three viruses was also studied by cross FA staining of both fixed and unfixed samples. A significant correlation among them was more clearly demonstrated by FA technique than in virus neutralization, HI, or CF tests. The similarity in the structures of V antigens as well as S antigens among the three viruses is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have compared the kinetic growth patterns of To-336, MEQ11, KRT, and SK2 rubella vaccine strains licensed in Japan at 37° and 39° C with those of progenitor wild strains of rubella virus. The growth of vaccine strains was depressed at 39° C to a level about 3 log10 lower than that at 37° C. The difference in virus titer attained by wild strains at 37° and 39° C was less than tenfold. The growth potential at 39° C paralleled the immunogenic marker of rubella virus,i.e. the capability of virus to induce antibody response upon subcutaneous injection in rabbits for all wild and vaccine strains examined, including one strain at an intermediate level of attenuation. Several clones were isolated from the progeny produced by a vaccine strain during the growth at 39° C. Among them were partial revertants in immunogenic marker as well as in the growth potential at 39° C. It was concluded that the immunogenic marker of rubella virus in rabbits represented its capability to replicate at the body temperature of the animal.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Infection with measles virus induces a transient immunosuppression, which occasionally results in fatal opportunistic infections. To obtain fundamental information about the mechanism, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from acute measles patients aged from infants to 35 years old, obtained at various times from incubation periods to 103 days after onset of rash, for the number of lymphocyte subsets by flowcytometry. The data were analyzed for relationships between aging of the patients and the severity of immunosuppression. In classical measles cases, infected lymphocytes detected as a minor pupulation during the incubation period disappeared soon after onset of rash, whereas in the cases of serious illness, the infected cells persisted longer after the rash. At the onset of rash, remarkable lymphopenia had already occurred in all measles cases with reduction in cell numbers of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, B cells, neutrophils, and monocytes. In contrast, natural killer (NK) cells were increased in number and activated, which might be a response compensatory for the lymphopenia. Apoptosis-associated molecules such as CD95(Fas) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor (TRAIL-R) were highly expressed on the cell surface of most surviving non-infected lymphocytes, and DNA fragmentation was also observed upon incubation in vitro. These results suggested that the profound lymphopenia was primarily due to extended death of non-infected blood cells caused by apoptosis. The severity and duration of the lumphopenia were age-dependent; less severe in young children whereas much severer in infants under one year of age as well as adolescents and adults. From these results, it was suggested that remarkable lymphopenia due to apoptosis of uninfected cells is one of the principal causes for immunosuppression induced by measles virus infection, and is correlated with the age-dependent severity of the disease.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Persistent infection of rinderpest virus in Vero cells was established and designated as VRP34. Virus specific antigens were present in nearly 100 per cent of the cells. Cytopathic effect (CPE) consisting of syncytium formation and vacuolation is a unique feature of VRP34. Spontaneously released virus mainly consisted of non-temperature-sensitive virus populations and was able to initiate persistent infection in both normal Vero and RK13 cells. The results indicate that mutation of virus is responsible for the establishment of persistent infection.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  A new agglutination test that utilizes gelatin particles as the carrier of measles antigen was developed and used to evaluate immune status to measles virus infection. The particle agglutination (PA) reagent reacted with monoclonal antibodies against two major proteins of measles virus, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins. Children were followed individually for ten years for measles antibody. Results showed that the PA test was as sensitive and specific as the plaque neutralization test. The procedure is simple and rapid. No prior treatment of specimens is needed, and the test is completed in a single reaction. The PA test therefore can be used for diagnoses and epidemiologic surveys of measles virus infection.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The processing of measles virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein (H) in infected cells was studied by pulse-chase method and two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. H glycoprotein was synthesized initially as polypeptides smaller than H glycoprotein present in the virions. They were then processed into a cohort of polypeptides of larger molecular size and with reduced charge. The change was associated with the expression of H glycoprotein on the cell surface. The removal of sialic acid from carbohydrate chain of H glycoprotein resulted in the shift of isoelectric point to a more basic range. The entire process of maturation of H glycoprotein required approximately 5 hours. Carbohydrate content in H was determined to be approximately 12 per cent by weight. Mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic acid were the constituent monosaccharides.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7446
    Keywords: acute-phase protein ; Bordetella bronchiseptica ; C-reactive protein ; diagnostics ; measles virus ; monkey ; turbidimetric immunoassay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum from normal crab-eating monkeys (Macaca irus) were measured by means of a monkey-specific turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA), and the changes in the serum CRP concentrations in crab-eating monkeys inoculated with Bordetella bronchiseptica R-5 and measles virus (Ichinose or NK 3 strain) were also examined. The CRP concentrations in sera from 54 normal crab-eating monkeys ranged from 0 to 8.3 μg/ml (mean 2.2±1.9). No significant difference was found in the CRP concentrations between males and females (p〉0.05). The concentrations of CRP in the sera from four crab-eating monkeys inoculated intrabronchially with 109 live B. bronchiseptica increased gradually to a peak at 2 days after inoculation. The peak concentrations of CRP were from 102.4 to 313.2 μg/ml, 54–96 times the preinoculative values of 1.9–5.6 μg/ml. When the same four crab-eating monkeys were inoculated intrabronchially with measles virus 34 days after inoculation of B. bronchiseptica, the serum CRP concentrations did not increase. Monitoring of CRP is useful for assessing monkeys with acute B. bronchiseptica infection and will probably be of value in the diagnosis of other bacterial infections.
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