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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied the effect of two carboxylic ionophores, monensin and laidlomycin, on the replication of measles virus in KB cells. The yield of infectious virus was markedly depressed at the concentrations of the ionophores which had no effect on overall viral protein synthesis. The ionophores selectively blocked the migration of hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein from Golgi apparatus to the cell surface. As a result, H glycoprotein is prevented from being converted from incompletely glycosylated form to the mature form. The inhibitory effect on the transport and glycosylation of H was reversed, although gradually, upon the removal of the ionophores.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of virology 98 (1988), S. 39-50 
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intracellular processing of measles virus fusion (F) protein was studied by radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal antibody against F protein. The cleavage of F protein into F1 and F2 subunits was complete after 5 hours of chase during which the growth of oligosaccharide chains on the F2 domain of F protein continued. The addition of terminal sialic acid conferred a strong negative charge on the F2 subunit. F protein expressed on the cell surface was removed by a fungal semi-alkaline protease, providing a method to follow the kinetics of its transport to the cell surface. The transport of the F protein was faster than that of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Uncleaved F protein, as well as cleaved subunits became digestible by the protease, indicating that a portion of the F protein reaches the cell surface uncleaved. The treatment of measles virus-infected cells with tunicamycin resulted in the synthesis of unglycosylated HA (65 kilodaltons, Kd) and F (48 Kd) proteins. Unglycosylated F protein was not cleaved into smaller subunits, nor was it transported to the cell surface. Unglycosylated HA protein likewise failed to reach the cell surface.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Infection with measles virus induces a transient immunosuppression, which occasionally results in fatal opportunistic infections. To obtain fundamental information about the mechanism, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from acute measles patients aged from infants to 35 years old, obtained at various times from incubation periods to 103 days after onset of rash, for the number of lymphocyte subsets by flowcytometry. The data were analyzed for relationships between aging of the patients and the severity of immunosuppression. In classical measles cases, infected lymphocytes detected as a minor pupulation during the incubation period disappeared soon after onset of rash, whereas in the cases of serious illness, the infected cells persisted longer after the rash. At the onset of rash, remarkable lymphopenia had already occurred in all measles cases with reduction in cell numbers of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, B cells, neutrophils, and monocytes. In contrast, natural killer (NK) cells were increased in number and activated, which might be a response compensatory for the lymphopenia. Apoptosis-associated molecules such as CD95(Fas) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor (TRAIL-R) were highly expressed on the cell surface of most surviving non-infected lymphocytes, and DNA fragmentation was also observed upon incubation in vitro. These results suggested that the profound lymphopenia was primarily due to extended death of non-infected blood cells caused by apoptosis. The severity and duration of the lumphopenia were age-dependent; less severe in young children whereas much severer in infants under one year of age as well as adolescents and adults. From these results, it was suggested that remarkable lymphopenia due to apoptosis of uninfected cells is one of the principal causes for immunosuppression induced by measles virus infection, and is correlated with the age-dependent severity of the disease.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monospecific antisera to HN and F glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus were prepared, and their effects on the biological activities of the virus were investigated. Anti-HN serum inhibited hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activity, as well as hemolysis. Anti-F serum had no effect on hemagglutination or neuraminidase but inhibited hemolysis and virus-induced cell fusion. Anti-HN serum was highly neutralizing, while neutralization by anti-F serum was very inefficient in conventional plaque reduction tests, although both sera were estimated to contain comparable amounts of antibody reacting with the virus as indicated by complement fixation and immunodiffusion tests. The neutralizing activity of anti-F serum was greatly enhanced by the addition of anti-IgG serum or fresh guinea pig serum, whereas that of anti-HN serum was little enhanced. Anti-HN serum incorporated in the agar overlay suppressed the development of plaques to some degree, while anti-F serum had little effect. The combination of anti-HN and anti-F sera resulted in a marked decrease in the number and size of plaques, demonstrating the synergistic effect of the two species of antibody in the containment of the spread of viral infection.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The processing of measles virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein (H) in infected cells was studied by pulse-chase method and two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. H glycoprotein was synthesized initially as polypeptides smaller than H glycoprotein present in the virions. They were then processed into a cohort of polypeptides of larger molecular size and with reduced charge. The change was associated with the expression of H glycoprotein on the cell surface. The removal of sialic acid from carbohydrate chain of H glycoprotein resulted in the shift of isoelectric point to a more basic range. The entire process of maturation of H glycoprotein required approximately 5 hours. Carbohydrate content in H was determined to be approximately 12 per cent by weight. Mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic acid were the constituent monosaccharides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The protective effect of humoral immunity against lethal infection of chickens with Newcastle disease virus was studied. Chickens hatched from eggs laid by hens vaccinated with live attenuated Newcastle disease virus vaccine possessed antibody to various components of the virus, and were resistant to a challenge with a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus which was 100 per cent fatal for the offspring of nonvaccinated hens. Passive administration of antiserum raised against whole virions provided susceptible chickens protection comparable to that seen in the birds with maternal antibody. When administered passively, both anti-HN serum with virus neutralizing activity, and anti-F serum with only marginal virus neutralizing activity significantly prolonged the survival of infected birds but failed to achieve the level of protection as afforded by the anti-whole NDV serum. The protection provided by the simultaneous presence of anti-HN and anti-F serum was significantly greater than that afforded by either alone and comparable to that of anti-whole NDV serum, indicating the complementary effect of anti-HN and anti-F antibodies not only in cell cultures as reported previously (19), but also in a natural host.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Two-particle correlations of negative pions as a function of charged particle multiplicity are studied in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}=17.3$ GeV per nucleon using the NA44 experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron(SPS). We find that the source size parameters increase with the charged particle multiplicity. However the slope of the source size parameters plotted as a function of charged multiplicity is slightly larger at high multiplicity than at low multiplicity. The value of $\lambda$ is independent of charged multiplicity. For Pb+Pb collisions, $R_L$ is larger than $R_{TS}$ and $R_{TO}$ for all multiplicity intervals, whereas these three radius parameters were approximately equal in S+Nucleus collisions. The ratios ( $R_L/R_{TS}$ ) and ( $R_L/R_{TO}$ ) for Pb+Pb data show almost no dependence on charged multiplicity. The duration of pion emission $\Delta \tau$ is constant at 3.8 $\pm$ 1.1 fm/c as a function of the charged multiplicity in Pb+Pb collisions. Effective volume (V) is also calculated as V= $\pi\times R_{TS}^2\times R_L$ , assuming a cylindrically shaped source. We found, within the limited statistics, the effective volume rapidly increases at high multiplicity.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Proton and deuteron production has been observed in S+S and S+Pb collisions at 200 A $\cdot$ GeV and in Pb+Pb reactions at 158 A $\cdot$ GeV at the CERN SPS accelerator. For Pb+Pb triton production was also measured. The p and d spectra as well as the p and t spectra were observed in similar rapidity ranges and over similar ranges of transverse momenta per nucleon, making it possible to interpret the cross sections of the composite particles in terms of coalescence mechanisms. Volumes of homogeneity were extracted and compared to pion-pair HBT interferometry results. Special attention is given to the dependence on transverse mass, centrality and rapidity.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 3520-3522 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Ultrashort laser pulses having 50 fs duration were used to cause planer fracture, i.e., spallation, in pure aluminum foils at intensities of (0.07–1)×1015 W/cm2. A linear relationship was obtained between spall depth and foil thickness, approximately corresponding to the proportions that were obtained in other relations for 300 ps and longer laser pulse irradiation. Spall thicknesses less than 5 μm were obtained in foils thinner than 50 μm, and revealed small-scale spallation at a strain rate exceeding 108 s−1. This ultrashort laser pulse evidently produced a shock wave followed by a steep unloading stress profile. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Phytochemistry 9 (1970), S. 367-369 
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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